OJCM  Vol.4 No.3 , July 2014
Self-Sensing Curved Micro-Strip Line Method for Damage Detection of CFRP Composites
Abstract: A self-sensing Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) method for Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates has been propped in the present study: carbon fibres are used as sensors using a transmission line. Authors have published research articles of the self-sensing TDR method. The self-sensing TDR method reduces number of required electrodes for damage detections although the sensitivity of detection is sacrificed. A micro-strip line (MSL) method is adopted to obtain impedance matching with a coaxial cable and successfully detected damage in a CFRP laminate in the previous study. In the present study, a long curved MSL is experimentally investigated as an impedance-matched transmission line for detection of damage of a CFRP laminate in wider area. Fibre breakage is simulated as a hole made by drilling. As a CFRP laminate has strongly orthotropic electric conductance and the electric properties of a CFRP laminate at the high frequency are not clarified, the effect of the orthotropic conductance at the curved transmission line is experimentally investigated. As a result, the effect of orthotropic conductance at the curved strip line is shown to be negligible, and fiber breakage that locates closed to the copper strip line can be detected by the self-sensing curved MSL method. It is, however, difficult to detect damage far from the copper strip line.
Cite this paper: Todoroki, A. , Yamada, K. , Mizutani, Y. , Suzuki, Y. , Matsuzaki, R. and Fujita, H. (2014) Self-Sensing Curved Micro-Strip Line Method for Damage Detection of CFRP Composites. Open Journal of Composite Materials, 4, 131-139. doi: 10.4236/ojcm.2014.43015.

[1]   Schulte, K. and Baron, Ch. (1989) Load and Failure Analyses of CFRP Laminates by Means of Electrical Resistively Measurements. Composite Science and Technology, 36, 63-76.

[2]   Muto, N., Yanagida, H., Nakatsuji, T., Sugita, M. and Ohtsuka, Y. (1993) Preventing Fatal Fractures in Carbon-Fibre-Glass-Fibre-Reinforced Plastic Composites by Monitoring Change in Electrical Resistance. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 76, 875-879.

[3]   Chen, P.W. and Chung, D.D.L. (1993) Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Smart Structures Capable of Non-Destructive Flaw Detection. Smart Materials and Structures, 2, 22-30.

[4]   Kaddoour, A.S., Al-Salehi F.A. and Al-Hassani, S.T.S. (1994) Electrical Resistance Measurement Technique for Detecting Failure in CFRP Materials at High Strain Rate. Composites Science and Technology, 51, 377-385.

[5]   Irving, P.E. and Thiagarajan, C. (1998) Fatigue Damage Characterization in Carbon Fibre Composite Materials Using an Electric Potential Technique. Smart Materials and Structures, 7, 456-466.

[6]   Abry, J.C., Bochard, S., Chateauminois, A., Salvia, M. and Giraud, G. (1999) In Situ Detection of Damage in CFRP Laminates by Electric Resistance Measurements. Composites Science and Technology, 59, 925-935.

[7]   Seo, D.C. and Lee, J.J. (1999) Damage Detection of CFRP Laminates Using Electrical Resistance Measurement and Neural Network. Composite Structures, 47, 525-530.

[8]   Todoroki, A., Tanaka, M. and Shimamura, Y. (2002) Measurement of Orthotropic Electric Conductance of CFRP Laminates and Analysis of the Effect on Delamination Monitoring with an Electric Resistance Change Method. Composites Science and Technology, 62, 619-628.

[9]   Todoroki, A. and Tanaka, Y. (2002) Delamination Identification of Cross-Ply Graphite/Epoxy Composite Beams Using Electric Resistance Change Method. Composites Science and Technology, 62, 629-639.

[10]   Ogi, K. and Takao, Y. (2005) Characterization of Piezoresistance Behavior in a CFRP Unidirectional Laminate. Composites Science and Technology, 65, 231-239.

[11]   Selvakumaran, L. and Lubineau, G. (2014) Electrical Behavior of Laminated Composites with Intralaminar Degradation: A Comprehensive Micro-Meso Homogenization Procedure. Composite Structure, 109, 178-188.

[12]   Todoroki, A., Haruyama, D., Mizutani, Y., Suzuki, Y. and Yasuoka, T. (2014) Electrical Resistance Change of Carbon/Epoxy Composite Laminates under Cyclic Loading under Damage Initiation Limit. Open Journal of Composite Materials, 4, 22-31.

[13]   Chen, G.D., Sun, S.S., Pommerenke, D., Drewniak, J.L., Greene, G.G., McDaniel, R.D., Belarbi, A. and Mu, H.M. (2005) Crack Detection of a Full-Scale Reinforced Concrete Girder with a Distributed Cable Sensor. Smart Materials and Structures, 14, S88-S97.

[14]   Lin, M.W., Thaduri, J. and Abatan, A.O. (2005) Development of an Electrical Time Domain Reflectometry (ETDR) Distributed Strain Sensor. Measurement Science and Technology, 16, 1495-1505.

[15]   Obaid, A.A., Yarlagadda, S., Yoon, M.K., Hager, N.E. and Domszy, R.C. (2006) A Time-Domain Reflectometry Method for Automated Measurement of Crack Propagation in Composites during Mode I DCB Testing. Journal of Composite Materials, 40, 2047-2066.

[16]   Korokawa, H., Todoroki, A. and Mizutani, Y. (2012) Damage Monitoring of CFRP Plate Using Self-Sensing TDR Method. Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering, 6, 1053-1061.

[17]   Korokawa, H., Todoroki, A. and Mizutani, Y. (2012) Numerical Simulation of Self-Sensing Time Domain Reflectometry for Damage Detection of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Plate. Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering, 6, 1062-1071.

[18]   Todoroki, A., Kurokawa, H., Mizutani, Y., Matsuzaki, R. and Yasuoka, T. (2014) Self-Sensing Time Domain Reflectometry Method for Damage Monitoring of a CFRP Plate Using a Narrow-Strip Transmission Line. Composites Part B: Engineering, 58, 59-65.

[19]   Todoroki, A., Suzuki, K., Mizutani, Y. and Matsuzaki, R. (2010) Durability Estimates of Copper Plated Electrodes for Self-Sensing CFRP Composites. Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering, 4, 610-620.

[20]   Wheeler, H.A. (1978) Transmission-Line Properties of a Strip Line Between Parallel Planes. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 26, 866-876.

[21]   Wadell, B.C. (1991) Transmission Line Design Handbook. Artech House Inc., Norwood, 298-299.

[22]   Hirano, Y., Katsumata, S., Iwahori, Y. and Todoroki, A. (2010) Artificial Lightning Testing on Graphite/Epoxy Composite Laminate. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41, 1461-1470.

[23]   Todoroki, A., Suzuki, K., Mizutani, Y. and Matsuzaki, R. (2010) Electrical Resistance Change of CFRP under Compression Load. Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering, 4, 864-874.