JBiSE  Vol.7 No.9 , July 2014
Helical Dielectrophoretic Particle Separator Fabricated by Conformal Spindle Printing
ABSTRACT
This paper reports the fabrication and testing of a helical cell separator that uses insulator-based dielectrophoresis as the driving force of its separation. The helical channel shape’s main advantage is its constant curvature radius which generates a constant electric field gradient. The presented separator was fabricated by extruding a sacrificial ink on rotating spindles using a computer-controlled robot. After being assembled, connected to the reservoir and encapsulated in epoxy resin, the ink was removed to create a helical microchannel. The resulting device was tested by circulating polystyrene microbeads of 4 and 10 μm diameter through its channel using a voltage of 900 VDC. The particles were separated with efficiencies of 94.0% and 92.5%, respectively. However, roughness in some parts of the channel and connections that had larger diameters compared to the channel created local electric field gradients which, doubtless, hindered separation. It is a promising device that could lead the way toward portable and affordable medical devices.

Cite this paper
Guérin, N. , Lévesque, M. and Therriault, D. (2014) Helical Dielectrophoretic Particle Separator Fabricated by Conformal Spindle Printing. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 7, 641-650. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2014.79064.
References
[1]   Gascoyne, P., Mahidol, C., Ruchirawat, M., Satayavivad, J., Watcharasit, P. and Becker, F.F. (2002) Microsample Preparation by Dielectrophoresis: Isolation of Malaria. Lab on a Chip, 2, 70-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b110990c

[2]   Lewpiriyawong, N., Kandaswamy, K., Yang, C., Ivanov, V. and Stocker, R. (2011) Microfluidic Characterization and Continuous Separation of Cells and Particles Using Conducting Poly(dimethyl siloxane) Electrode Induced Alternating Current-Dielectrophoresis. Analytical Chemistry, 83, 9579-9585.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac202137y

[3]   Yu, C., Vykoukal, J., Vykoukal, D.M., Schwartz, J.A., Shi, L. and Gascoyne, P.R.C. (2005) A Three-Dimensional Dielectrophoretic Particle Focusing Channel for Microcytometry Applications. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 14, 480-487.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JMEMS.2005.844839

[4]   Gascoyne, P.R.C. and Vykoukal, J.V. (2004) Dielectrophoresis-Based Sample Handling in General-Purpose Programmable Diagnostic Instruments. Biomedical Applications for Mems and Microfluidics, 92, 22-42.

[5]   Rao, C.N.R., Voggu, R. and Govindaraj, A. (2009) Selective Generation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Metallic, Semiconducting and Other Unique Electronic Properties. Nanoscale, 1, 96-105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b9nr00104b

[6]   Kang, Y., Li, D., Kalams, S.A. and Eid, J.E. (2008) DC-Dielectrophoretic Separation of Biological Cells by Size. Biomedical Microdevices, 10, 243-249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10544-007-9130-y

[7]   Church, C., Zhu, J. and Xuan, X. (2011) Negative Dielectrophoresis-Based Particle Separation by Size in a Serpentine Microchannel. Electrophoresis, 32, 527-531.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201000396

[8]   Zhu, J. and Xuan, X. (2011) Curvature-Induced Dielectrophoresis for Continuous Separation of Particles by Charge in Spiral Microchannels. Biomicrofluidics, 5, 024111-024113.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3599883

[9]   Zellner, P.A., Sahari, A., Hosseini, Y., Behkam, B. and Agah, M. (2012) Selective E. coli Trapping with 3D Insulator-Based Dielectrophoresis Using DC-Biased, AC Electric Fields. 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS 2012, 28 August-1 September 2012, San Diego, 6285-6288.

[10]   Cen, E.G., Dalton, C., Li, Y., Adamia, S., Pilarski, L.M. and Kaler, K.V.I.S. (2004) A Combined Dielectrophoresis, Traveling Wave Dielectrophoresis and Electrorotation Microchip for the Manipulation and Characterization of Human Malignant Cells. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 58, 387-401.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2004.05.002

[11]   Gascoyne, P.R.C., Wang, X.-B., Huang, Y. and Becker, F.F. (1997) Dielectrophoretic Separation of Cancer Cells from Blood. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 33, 670-678.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/28.585856

[12]   Hu, X., Bessette, P.H., Qian, J., Meinhart, C.D., Daugherty, P.S. and Soh, H.T. (2005) Marker-Specific Sorting of Rare Cells Using Dielectrophoresis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 15757-15761.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0507719102

[13]   Lapizco-Encinas, B.H., Simmons, B.A., Cummings, E.B. and Fintschenko, Y. (2004) Dielectrophoretic Concentration and Separation of Live and Dead Bacteria in an Array of Insulators. Analytical Chemistry, 76, 1571-1579.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac034804j

[14]   Pohl H. A. (1951) Motion and Precipitation of Suspensoids in Divergent Electric Fields. Journal of Applied Physics, 22, 869-871.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1700065

[15]   Pohl, H.A. and Crane, J.S. (1971) Dielectrophoresis of Cells. Biophysical Journal, 11, 711-727.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(71)86249-5

[16]   Yamamoto, M., Yasukawa, T., Suzuki, M., Kosuge, S., Shiku, H., Matsue, T., et al. (2012) Patterning with Particles Using Three-Dimensional Interdigitated Array Electrodes with Negative Dielectrophoresis and Its Application to Simple Immunosensing. Electrochimica Acta, 82, 35-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2012.02.109

[17]   Srivastava, S.K., Gencoglu, A. and Minerick, A.R. (2011) DC Insulator Dielectrophoretic Applications in Microdevice Technology: A Review. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 399, 301-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-4222-6

[18]   Suehiro, J., Zhou, G., Imamura, M. and Hara, M. (2003) Dielectrophoretic Filter for Separation and Recovery of Biological Cells in Water. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 39, 1514-1521.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2003.816535

[19]   Hyoung Kang, K., Xuan, X., Kang, Y. and Li, D. (2006) Effects of dc-Dielectrophoretic Force on Particle Trajectories in Microchannels. Journal of Applied Physics, 99, Article ID: 064702.

[20]   Ai, Y., Park, S., Zhu, J., Xuan, X., Beskok, A. and Qian, S. (2010) DC Electrokinetic Particle Transport in an l-Shaped Microchannel. Langmuir, 26, 2937-2944.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la902711x

[21]   Voldman, J., Gray, M.L., Toner, M. and Schmidt, M.A. (2002) A Microfabrication-Based Dynamic Array Cytometer. Analytical Chemistry, 74, 3984-3990.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0256235

[22]   Huang, C.-T., Weng, C.-H. and Jen, C.-P. (2011) Three-Dimensional Cellular Focusing Utilizing a Combination of Insulator-Based and Metallic Dielectrophoresis. Biomicrofluidics, 5, 044101-044111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3646757

[23]   Hyunjung, C., Il, D. and Young-Ho, C. (2009) A Three-Dimensional (3D) Particle Focusing Channel Using the Positive Dielectrophoresis (pDEP) Guided by a Dielectric Structure between Two Planar Electrodes. Lab on a Chip, 9, 686-691.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b812213j

[24]   Pohl, H., Pollock, K. and Crane, J. (1978) Dielectrophoretic Force: A Comparison of Theory and Experiment. Journal of Biological Physics, 6, 133-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02328936

[25]   Morgan, H. and Green, N.G. (2003) AC Electrokinetics: Colloids and Nanoparticles. Research Studies Press Limited.

[26]   Jones, T.B. (2005) Electromechanics of Particles. Cambridge University Press, England.

[27]   Zhu, J., Tzeng, T.-R.J., Hu, G. and Xuan, X. (2009) DC Dielectrophoretic Focusing of Particles in a Serpentine Microchannel. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 7, 751-756.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10404-009-0432-7

[28]   Therriault, D., White, S.R. and Lewis, J.A. (2003) Chaotic Mixing in Three-Dimensional Microvascular Networks Fabricated by Direct-Write Assembly. Nature Materials, 2, 265-271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat863

[29]   Ermolina, I. and Morgan, H. (2005) The Electrokinetic Properties of Latex Particles: Comparison of Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 285, 419-428.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.11.003

 
 
Top