CUS  Vol.2 No.2 , June 2014
Safe Place by Design: Urban Crime in Relation to Spatiality and Sociality
ABSTRACT

Different conceptions of crime in design practice, sociology, environmental psychology, and crimi- nology indicate an extensive articulation of crime in relation to the built environment and urban form in the city. Five decades of different studies on urban crime, crime prevention through environmental design, and fear of crime indicate an implicit and gradual movement from deterministic to possibilistic propositions in exploring the relationships between urban crime and environmental design both in theory and practice. Hence, the study firstly conducts a critical review on the issue of urban crime in relation to urban design, planning, and architecture disciplines. Categorizing different researches of urban crime in terms of their propositions and various dimensions of crime prevention through environmental design, the study proceeds to discuss the issue of crime in relation to spatiality and sociality in the city. Moreover, grounding the issue of safety in the context of place theory and avoiding deterministic and free-will approaches to urban crime, the study advocates for the necessity of mapping urban morphology, functional attributes, and spatial patterns in relation to socio-economic condition and demographic profiling. Thus, giving primacy to spatiality in relation to sociality and criticizing the absence of morphological mapping of urban crime, the study denotes the multi-scalar and multi-dimensional attributes of urban crime in relation to morphological, functional, perceptual, and social dimensions of a safe place by design.


Cite this paper
Kamalipour, H. , Faizi, M. and Memarian, G. (2014) Safe Place by Design: Urban Crime in Relation to Spatiality and Sociality. Current Urban Studies, 2, 152-162. doi: 10.4236/cus.2014.22015.
References
[1]   Abdullah, A., Marzbali, M. H., & Tilaki, M. J. M. (2013). Predicting the Influence of CPTED on Perceived Neighbourhood Cohesion: Considering Differences across Age. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 54-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.06.005

[2]   Abdullah, A., Marzbali, M. H., Woolley, H., Bahauddin, A., & Maliki, N. (2013). Testing for Individual Factors for the Fear of Crime Using a Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause Model. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 20, 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10610-013-9208-4

[3]   Alexander, C. (1964). A City Is Not a Tree. Architectural Forum, 122, 58-61.

[4]   Alexander, C. (1979). The Timeless Way of Building. New York: Oxford University Press.

[5]   Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1977). A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York: Oxford University Press.

[6]   Angel, S. (1968). Discouraging Crime through City Planning. Berkeley, CA: University of California: Center for Planning and Development Research.

[7]   Armitage, R., & Gamman, L. (2009). Sustainability via Security: A New Look. Built Environment, 35, 297-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.2148/benv.35.3.297

[8]   Austin, D. M., Furr, L. A., & Spine, M. (2002). The Effects of Neighborhood Conditions on Perceptions of Safety. Journal of Criminal Justice, 30, 417-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0047-2352(02)00148-4

[9]   Biddulph, M. (2007). Introduction to Residential Layout. Oxford; Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

[10]   Black, A. W. (2004). The Quest for Sustainable. Healthy Communities. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 20, 33-44.

[11]   Body-Gendrot, S. (2000). The Social Control of Cities? A Comparative Perspective. Oxford; Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470712757

[12]   Bottoms, A. E., & Wiles, P. (1997). Environmental Criminology. In M. Maguire, R. Moran, & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Criminology (pp. 620-656). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[13]   Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1981). Environmental Criminology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

[14]   Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1984). Patterns in Crime. New York: MacMillan.

[15]   Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1998). Environmental Criminology: From Theory to Urban Planning Practice. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 7, 31-60.

[16]   Brantingham, P. J., & Faust, F. L. (1976). A Conceptual Model of Crime Prevention. Crime and Delinquency, 22, 284-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001112877602200302

[17]   Brantingham, P. J., Brantingham, P. L., & Molumby, T. (1977). Perceptions of Crime in a Dreadful Enclosure. The Ohio Journal of Science, 77, 256-261.

[18]   Carmona, M. (2001). Sustainable Urban Design: A Possible Agenda. London: Spon Press.

[19]   Casey, E. S. (1997). The Fate of Place. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[20]   Chadee, D., & Ditton, J. (2005). Fear of Crime and the Media: Assessing the Lack of Relationship. Crime Media Culture, 1, 322-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741659005057644

[21]   Clarke, R. V. (1980). Situational Crime Prevention: Theory and Practice. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston.

[22]   Clarke, R. V. (1995). Situational Crime Prevention. In M. Tonry, & D. Farrington (Eds.), Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention (pp. 91-150). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[23]   Clarke, R. V. (2009). Situational Crime Prevention: Theoretical Background and Current Practice. In M. D. Krohn, A. J. Lizotte, & G. P. Hall, (Eds.), Handbook on Crime and Deviance (pp. 259-276). New York: Springer Science + Business Media.

[24]   Clarke, R. V., & Cornish, D. B. (1985). Modeling Offenders’ Decisions: A Framework for Research and Policy. In M. Tonry, & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research (pp. 147-185). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

[25]   Cohen, D., Spear, S., Scribner, R., Kissinger, P., Mason, K., & Wildgen, J. (2000). “Broken Windows” and the Risk of Gonorrhea. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 230-236. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.90.2.230

[26]   Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588-608. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094589

[27]   Colquhoun, I. (2004). Design out Crime: Creating Safe and Sustainable Communities. Oxford; Burlington, MA: Architectural Press.

[28]   Cornish, D., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. Hague: Springer- Verlag.

[29]   Cozens, P. (2002). Sustainable Urban Development and Crime Prevention through Environmental Design for the British City. Towards an Effective Urban Environmentalism for the 21st Century. Cities, 19, 129-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0264-2751(02)00008-2

[30]   Cozens, P. (2008). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design in Western Australia: Planning for Sustainable Urban Futures. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 3, 272-292. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V3-N3-272-292

[31]   Cozens, P., Saville, G., & Hillier, D. (2005). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED): A Review and Modern Bibliography. Property Management, 23, 328-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02637470510631483

[32]   Crowe, T. D. (2000). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design: Applications of Architectural Design and Space Ma- nagement Concepts (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

[33]   Dewberry, E. (2003). Designing out Crime: Insights from Ecodesign. Security Journal, 16, 51-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.sj.8340125

[34]   Ditton, J., Chadee, D., Farrall, S., Gilchrist, E., & Bannister, J. (2004). From Imitation to Intimidation. British Journal of Criminology, 44, 595-610. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azh028

[35]   Du Plessis, C. (1999). The Links between Crime Prevention and Sustainable Development. Open House International, 24, 33-40.

[36]   Ekblom, P. (2011). Deconstructing CPTED… and Reconstructing It for Practice, Knowledge Management and Research. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 17, 7-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10610-010-9132-9

[37]   Fattah, E. A. (1993). The Rational Choice/Opportunity Perspectives as a Vehicle for Integrating Criminological and Victimological Theories. In R. V. Clarke, & M. Felson (Eds.), Routine Activity and Rational Choice: Advances in Criminological Theory (pp. 225-258). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

[38]   Felson, M. (1994). Crime and Everyday Life: Insights and Implications for Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

[39]   Felson, M. (1995). Those Who Discourage Crime. In J. E. Eck, & D. Weisburd (Eds.), Crime and Place (pp. 53-66). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

[40]   Ferraro, K. F. (1995). Fear of Crime: Interpreting Victimization Risk. New York: State University of New York Press.

[41]   Garofalo, J. (1979). Victimization and the Fear of Crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 16, 80-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242787901600107

[42]   Glasson, J., & Cozens, P. (2011). Making Communities Safer from Crime: An Undervalued Element in Impact Assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 31, 25-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2010.03.007

[43]   Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and Time (J. Macquarrie, & E. Robinson, Trans.). New York: Harper & Row.

[44]   Hillier, B. (1996). Space Is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge Uni- versity Press.

[45]   Hillier, B. (2004). Can Streets Be Made Safe? Urban Design International, 9, 31-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.udi.9000079

[46]   Hillier, B. (2008). Space and Spatiality: What the Built Environment Needs from Social Theory. Building Research & Infor- mation, 36, 216-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09613210801928073

[47]   Hillier, B., & Hanson, J. (1984). The Social Logic of Space. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597237

[48]   Hillier, B., & Shu, S. (2000). Crime and Urban Layout: The Need for Evidence. In S. Ballintyne, K. Pease, & V. McLaren (Eds.), Secure Foundations: Key Issues in Crime Prevention (pp. 224-248). London: Crime Reduction and Community Safety, Institute of Public Policy Research.

[49]   Hummelsheim, D., Hirtenlehner, H., Jackson, J., & Oberwittler, D. (2011). Social Insecurities and Fear of Crime: A Cross- National Study on the Impact of Welfare State Policies on Crime-Related Anxieties. European Sociological Review, 27, 327-345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcq010

[50]   Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House.

[51]   Jeffery, C. R. (1971). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

[52]   Jeffery, C. R. (1990). Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[53]   Kamalipour, H., Arab, A. D., Soltani, S., Alavi, S. N., & Mirzaei, E. (2013). Understanding Continuity and Change in the Persian Vernacular Settlements: A Comparative Syntactic Analysis of Urban Public Spaces in a Case Study. Current Urban Studies, 1, 130-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/cus.2013.14014

[54]   Kamalipour, H., Memarian, G., & Faizi, M. (2014). Urban Crime and Pattern Conceptions: Departuring from Spatiality. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 441-450. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2014.26051

[55]   Kamalipour, H., Memarian, G., Faizi, M., & Mousavian, S. M. F. (2013). Evaluating CPTED Measures in Historical Urban Public Places: A Syntactic Analysis of a Case Study. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 3, 795-805.

[56]   Kamalipour, H., Yeganeh, A. J., & Alalhesabi, M. (2012). Predictors of Place Attachment in Urban Residential Environments: A Residential Complex Case Study. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 459-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.02.111

[57]   Lab, S. P. (2010). Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations (7th ed.). New Providence, NJ: LexisNexis Matthew Bender.

[58]   Lang, J. T. (1987). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.

[59]   Lang, J. T. (2005). Urban Design: A Typology of Procedures and Products. Oxford; Burlington, MA: Architectural Press.

[60]   Lee, M. (2007). Inventing Fear of Crime: Criminology and the Politics of Anxiety. Cullompton: Willan Publication.

[61]   Lorenc, T., Clayton, S., Neary, D., Whitehead, M., Petticrew, M., Thomson, H., Renton, A. et al. (2012). Crime, Fear of Crime, Environment, and Mental Health and Wellbeing: Mapping Review of Theories and Causal Pathways. Health & Place, 18, 757-765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.04.001

[62]   Malpas, J. (2008). New Media, Cultural Heritage and the Sense of Place: Mapping the Conceptual Ground. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 14, 197-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13527250801953652

[63]   Marshall, S. (2012). Science, Pseudo-Science and Urban Design. URBAN DESIGN International, 17, 257-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/udi.2012.22

[64]   Marshall, S., & ?ali?kan, O. (2011). A Joint Framework for Urban Morphology and Design. Built Environment, 37, 409-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.2148/benv.37.4.409

[65]   Marzbali, M. H., Abdullah, A., Razak, N. A., & Tilaki, M. J. M. (2012a). The Influence of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design on Victimisation and Fear of Crime. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32, 79-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2011.12.005

[66]   Marzbali, M. H., Abdullah, A., Razak, N. A., & Tilaki, M. J. M. (2012b). Validating Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Construct through Checklist Using Structural Equation Modelling. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 40, 82-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlcj.2011.08.005

[67]   Maslow, A. (1943). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper.

[68]   Massey, D. B. (1995). The Conceptualization of Place. In D. B. Massey, & P. Jess (Eds.), A Place in the World?: Places, Cultures and Globalization (pp. 45-85). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

[69]   Maxfield, M. G. (1987a). Household Composition, Routine Activity, and Victimization: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3, 301-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01066833

[70]   Maxfield, M. G. (1987b). Lifestyle and Routine Activity Theories of Crime: Empirical Studies of Victimization, Delinquency, and Offender Decision-Making. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3, 275-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01066831

[71]   Moudon, A. V. (1997). Urban Morphology as an Emerging Interdisciplinary Field. Urban Morphology, 1, 3-10.

[72]   Nasar, J. L., & Fisher, B. (1992). Design for Vulnerability: Cues and Reactions to Fear of Crime. Sociological and Social Re- search, 76, 48-57.

[73]   Newman, O. (1972). Defensible Space; Crime Prevention through Urban Design. New York: Macmillan. Newman, O. (1980). Community of Interest. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday.

[74]   Norberg-Schulz, C. (1980). Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli. Nordqvist, C., Timpka, T., & Lindqvist, K. (2009). What Promotes Sustainability in Safe Community Programmes? BMC Health Services Research, 9, 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-9-4

[75]   Perkins, D., Meeks, J. W., & Taylor, R. B. (1992). The Physical Environment of Street Blocks and Resident Perceptions of Crime and Disorder: Implications for Theory and Measurement. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 21-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(05)80294-4

[76]   Portugali, J. (2011). Complexity, Cognition and the City. Berlin: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-19451-1

[77]   Robinson, M. B. (1996). The Theoretical Development of CPTED: 25 Years of Responses to C. Ray Jeffery. In W. S. Laufer, & F. Adler (Eds.), The Criminology of Criminal Law: Advances in Criminological Theory (pp. 427-462). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

[78]   Rountree, P. W., & Land, K. C. (1996). Burglary Victimization, Perceptions of Crime Risk, and Routine Activities: A Multi- level Analysis across Seattle Neighborhoods and Census Tracts. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33, 147- 180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427896033002001

[79]   Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). Defining Place Attachment: A Tripartite Organizing Framework. Journal of Environmen- tal Psychology, 30, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.09.006

[80]   Schneider, R. H., & Kitchen, T. (2002). Planning For Crime Prevention: A Transatlantic Perspective. London: Routledge.

[81]   Tseloni, A., & Zarafonitou, C. (2008). Fear of Crime and Victimization: A Multivariate Multilevel Analysis of Competing Measurements. European Journal of Criminology, 5, 387-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1477370808095123

[82]   Tuan, Y. F. (1977). Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

[83]   Vrij, A., & Winkel, W. (1991). Characteristics of the Built Environment and Fear of Crime: A Research Note on Interventions in Unsafe Locations. Deviant Behavior, 12, 203-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639625.1991.9967873

[84]   Wilcox, P., Quisenberry, N., & Jones, S. (2003). The Built Environment and Community Crime Risk Interpretation. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 322-345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427803253801

[85]   Wood, E. (1961). Housing Design: A Social Theory. New York: Citizens’ Housing and Planning Council of New York.

 
 
Top