JWARP  Vol.6 No.9 , June 2014
Influence of Potential Evapotranspiration on the Water Balance of Sugarcane Fields in Maui, Hawaii
ABSTRACT

The year-long warm temperatures and other climatic characteristics of the Pacific Ocean Islands have made Hawaii an optimum place for growing sugarcane; however, irrigation is essential to satisfy the large water demand of sugarcane. Under the Hawaiian tropical weather, actual evapotranspiration (AET) is the primary mechanism by which water is removed from natural and agricultural systems. The Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company (HC&S), the largest sugarcane grower of the Hawaiian Islands, has developed a locally optimized AET equation for the purpose of water management on its 184.3 km2 sugarcane plantation on the Island of Maui. In this paper, in order to assess the influence of AET on the hydrological water balance of the HC&S’ sugarcane cropping system, the performance of the HC&S method was compared with three physically-based methods: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, and Hargreaves, as well as, to a set of historical pan evaporation data. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) project was setup to estimate the water balance in two sugarcane fields: a windy lowland field and a rocky highland field on a hill slope. Under Hawaiian weather conditions, wind speed was found to be the most influential climatic parameter over potential evapotranspiration (PET); therefore, the results with both Hargreaves and Priestley-Taylor underpredicted PET by approximately 30%, presumably because these methods do not take wind speed into account. The HC&S method was demonstrated to be the most accurate PET method compared to the other commonly used PET equations, with less than 10% error. Of the annual total water supply of 3400 mm, AET accounted for 75% - 80% of the total water consumption. These findings can be used to improve the irrigation efficiency as well as other management scenarios to optimize water use on the Island of Maui.


Cite this paper
Osorio, J. , Jeong, J. , Bieger, K. and Arnold, J. (2014) Influence of Potential Evapotranspiration on the Water Balance of Sugarcane Fields in Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 852-868. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.69080.
References
[1]   Grubert, E. (2011) Freshwater on the Island of Maui: System Interactions, Supply, and Demand. Master’s Thesis, Environmental Water Resource Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin.

[2]   McMahon, T.A., Peel, M.C., Lowe, L., Srikanthan, R. and McVicar, T.R. (2012) Estimating Actual, Potential, Reference Crop and Pan Evaporation Using Standard Meteorological Data: A Pragmatic Synthesis. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 11829-11910.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hessd-9-11829-2012

[3]   Lloyd, B.R., Davidson, J.R. and Hogg, H.C. (1972) Estimating the Productivity of Irrigation Water for Sugarcane Production in Hawaii. Economic Research Service Technical Report No. 56, USDA—Natural Resource Economics Division, 72.

[4]   National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) (2013) National Statistics for Sugarcane.
http://www.nass.usda.gov

[5]   Baumgartner, A. and Reichel, E. (1975) The World Water Balance. R. Oldenbourg-Verlag, Munchen, Wien, 1-179.

[6]   Irmak, S., Howell, T.A., Allen, R.G., Payero, J.O. and Martin, D.L. (2005) Standardized ASCE Penman-Monteith: Impact of Sum-Of-Hourly vs. 24-Hour Timestep Computations at Reference Weather Station Sites. Transactions of the ASAE, 48, 1063-1077.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.18517

[7]   Wang, X., Melesse, A.M. and Yang, W. (2006) Influences of Potential Evapotranspiration Estimation Methods on Swat’s Hydrologic Simulation in a Northwestern Minnesota Watershed. Transactions of the ASABE, 49, 1755-1772.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.22297

[8]   Dingman, S.L. (1994) Physical Hydrology. Macmillan College Publishing Company, New York, 575.

[9]   Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (1998) Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 566, UN-FAO, Rome.

[10]   McCuen, R.H. (1998) Hydrologic Analysis and Design. 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River.

[11]   Giambelluca, T.W. and Nullet, D. (1992) Evaporation at High Elevations in Hawaii. Journal of Hydrology, 136, 219-235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(92)90012-K

[12]   Farahani, H.J., Howell, T.A., Shuttleworth, W.J. and Bausch, W.C. (2007) Evapotranspiration: Progress in Measurement and Modeling in Agriculture. Transaction of the ASABE, 50, 1627-1638.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.23965

[13]   Shih, S.F. (1987) Using Crop Yield and Evapotranspiration Relations for Regional Water Requirement Estimation. Water Resources Bulletin—American Water Resources Association, 23, 435-442.

[14]   Gracel, B. and Quickl, B. (1998) A Comparison of Methods for the Calculation of Potential Evapotranspiration under the Windy Semi-Arid Conditions of Southern Alberta. Canadian Research Hydrology, 13, 9-19.

[15]   Blumenstock, D.I. and Price, S. (1967) Climate of Hawaii. In: Climates of the States, No. 60-51, Climatography of the United States, US Department of Commerce, Washington DC.

[16]   Jensen, M.E., Burman, R.D. and Allen, R.G. (1990) Evapotranspiration and Irrigation Water Requirements. American Society of Civil Engineers Manual and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 70, New York, 360.

[17]   Bezuidenhout, C.N., Lecler, N.L., Gers, C. and Lyne, P.W.L. (2006) Regional Based Estimates of Water Use for Commercial Sugarcane in South Africa. Water South Africa, 32, 219-222.

[18]   Arnold, J.G. and Fohrer, N. (2005) SWAT2000: Current Capabilities and Research Opportunities in Applied Watershed Modeling. Hydrolocical Processes, 19, 563-572.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5611

[19]   Gassman, P.W., Reyes, M., Green, C.H. and Arnold, J.G. (2007) The Soil and Water Assessment Tool: Historical Development, Applications, and Future Directions. Transactions of the ASABE, 50, 1211-1250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.23637

[20]   Green, W.H. and Ampt, G.A. (1911) Studies on Soil Physics, Part 1, the Flow of Air and Water through Soils. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4, 11-24.

[21]   Monteith, J.L. (1965) Evaporation and the Environment. 19th Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, 19, 205-234.

[22]   Sumner, D.M. and Jacobs, J.M. (2005) Utility of Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, Reference Evapotranspiration, and Pan Evaporation Methods to Estimate Pasture Evapotranspiration. Journal of Hydrology, 308, 81-104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.10.023

[23]   Hargreaves, G.H. (1975) Moisture Availability and Crop Production. Transactions of the ASAE, 18, 980-984.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.36722

[24]   Priestley, C.H.B. and Taylor, R.J. (1972) On the Assessment of Surface Heat Flux and Evaporation Using Large-Scale Parameters. Monthly Weather Review, 100, 81-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1972)100<0081:OTAOSH>2.3.CO;2

[25]   Hargreaves, G.H. and Allen, R.G. (2003) History and Evaluation of Hargreaves Evapotranspiration Equation. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 129, 53-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2003)129:1(53)

[26]   Ekern, P.C. and Chang, J.H. (1985) Pan Evaporation: State of Hawaii, 1894-1983. Hawaii. Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Water and Land Development, Honolulu, Rep. R74, viii + 172.

[27]   Sanderson, M. (1993) Prevailing Trade Winds: Weather and Climate in Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 126.

[28]   Mink, J.F. and Lau, L.S. (2006) Hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

[29]   NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) (2013) Comparative Climatic Data for the United States through 2012.
http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=C00095-PUB-A0001

[30]   Anderson, R.G. and Wang, D. (2014) Energy Budget Closure Observed in Paired Eddy Covariance Towers with Increased and Continuous Daily Turbulence. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 184, 204-209.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.09.012

[31]   Gesch, D.B. (2007) The National Elevation Dataset. In: Maune, D., Ed., Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Applications: The DEM User’s Manual, 2nd Edition, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, 99-118.

[32]   Fry, J.A., Coan, M.J., Homer, C.G., Meyer, D.K. and Wickham, J.D. (2009) Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1379, 18.

[33]   Nair, S.S., King, K.W., Witter, J.D., Sohngen, B.L. and Fausey, N.R. (2011) Importance of Crop Yield in Calibrating Watershed Water Quality Simulation Tools. JAWRA: Journal of the American Water Resource Association, 47, 1285-1297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2011.00570.x

[34]   Jones, C.A. (1980) A Review of Evapotranspiration Studies in Irrigated Sugarcane in Hawaii. Hawaiian Planters’ Record, 59, 195-214.

[35]   Liu, W.Z., Hunsaker, D.J., Li, Y.S., Xie, X.Q. and Wall, G.W. (2002) Interrelations of Yield, Evapotranspiration, and Water Use Efficiency from Marginal Analysis of Water Production Functions. Agricultural Water Management, 56, 143-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00011-2

[36]   Allison, F.E., Roller, E.M. and Raney, W.A. (1985) Relationship between Evapotranspiration and Yields of Crops Grown in Lysimeters Receiving Natural Rainfall. Agronomy Journal, 50, 506-511.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj1958.00021962005000090004x

[37]   United States Geological Service (USGS) (2007) Effects of Agricultural Land-Use Changes and Rainfall on Ground-Water Recharge in Central and West Maui, Hawaii, 1926-2004. Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5103, 69.

[38]   Suleiman, A.A. and Hoogenboom, G. (2007) Comparison of Priestley-Taylor and FAO-56 Penman-Monteith for Daily Reference Evapotranspiration Estimation in Georgia. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 133, 175-182.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2007)133:2(175)

[39]   Da Silva, T.G.F.F. (2009) Analise de crescimento, interacao biosfera-atmosfera e eficiencia do uso de agua da cana-deacucar irrigada no submedio do vale do Sao Francisco. TeseDoutorado—Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 194.

[40]   Souza, E.F., Bernardo, S. and Carvalho, J.A. (1999) Funcao de producao da cana—Deacucaremrelacao a agua para tres cultivares, em Campos dos Goytacazes. Engenharia Agicola, 19, 28-42.

[41]   Inman-Bamber, N.G. and McGlinchey, M.G. (2003) Crop Coefficients and Water-Use Estimates for Sugarcane Based on Long-Term Bowen Ratio Energy Balance Measurements. Field Crops Research, 83, 125-138.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(03)00069-8

[42]   Santos, M.A.L. (2005) Irrigacao suplementar da cana-de-acucar (Saccharumspp.): Um modelo de analise de decisao para o Estado de Alagoas. Tese Doutorado—Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Piracicaba, 101.

[43]   Izuka, S.K., Oki, D.S. and Chen, C. (2005) Effects of Irrigation and Rainfall Reduction on Ground-Water Recharge in the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii. Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5146, US Department of the Interior, 48.

[44]   Shade, P.J. (1999) Water Budget of East Maui, Hawaii. Water-Resources Investigations Report 98-4159, US Department of the Interior, 36.

 
 
Top