AJPS  Vol.5 No.13 , June 2014
Red Rice Control and Soybean Tolerance to S-Metolachlor in Association with Glyphosate
Abstract: Red rice is one of the major troublesome and difficult weeds to control in rice production regions. The introduction of the Clearfield® technology allowed producers to control red rice using rice genotypes tolerant to the imidazolinone herbicides. However, because the consecutive use of this technology red rice biotypes have evolved resistance to imidazolinone herbicides, the rice-soybean rotation has been an alternative used by producers to control this weed. This system allows the use of herbicides with different modes of action to control red rice, such as S-metolachlor. Thus, greenhouse and field experiments were carried out during the 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013 growing seasons to evaluate: 1) sensitivity of imidazolinone-resistant red rice to S-metolachlor; 2) red rice control and soybean tolerance in response to associations of S-metolachlor and glyphosate. In greenhouse, S-metolachlor effectively controlled both susceptible and imidazolinone-resistant red rice in preemergence. In field, preemergence applications of S-metolachlor provided greater red rice control in comparison to S-metolachlor alone in early postemergence. The association of S-metolachlor with glyphosate did not improve red rice control in preemergence application. However, association of S-metolachlor with glyphosate significantly improved red rice control in early postemergence applications. S-metolachlor injury to soybean increased with early postemergence applications. These results indicate that S-metolachlor effectively control imidazolinone-resistant red rice in rice-soybean rotation.
Cite this paper: Zemolin, C. , Avila, L. , Agostinetto, D. , Cassol, G. , Bastiani, M. and Pestana, R. (2014) Red Rice Control and Soybean Tolerance to S-Metolachlor in Association with Glyphosate. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 2040-2047. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.513219.

[1]   Agostinetto, D., Fleck, N.G., Rizzardi, M.A., Merotto Jr., A. and Vidal, R.A. (2001) Red Rice: Ecophysiology and Strategies of Control. Ciência Rural, 31, 341-349.

[2]   Burgos, N.R., Norman, R.J., Gealy, D.R. and Black, H. (2006) Competitive N Uptake between Rice and Weedy Rice. Field Crops Research, 99, 96-105.

[3]   Souza, P.R. and Fischer, M.M. (1986) Red Rice: Yield Losses in the Rice Fields of Southern Brazil. Lavoura Arrozeira, 39, 19-20.

[4]   Eleftherohorinos, I.G. and Dhima, K.V. (2002) Red Rice (Oryza sativa) Control in Rice (O. sativa) with Preemergence and Postemergence Herbicides. Weed Technology, 16, 537-540.[0537:RROSCI]2.0.CO;2

[5]   Estorninos Jr., L.E., Gealy, D.R., Gbur, E.E., Talbert, R.E. and Mcclelland, M.R. (2005) Rice and Red Rice Interference. II. Rice Response to Population Densities of Three Red Rice (Oryza sativa) Ecotypes. Weed Science, 53, 683-689.

[6]   Fogliatto, S., Vidotto, F. and Ferrero, A. (2011) Morphological Characterization of Italian Weedy Rice (Oryza sativa) Populations. Weed Research, 52, 60-69.

[7]   Avila, L.A., Senseman, S.A.G., Mccauley, N., Chandler, J.M. and O’Barr, J.H. (2005) Effect of Flood Timing on Red Rice (Oryza spp.) Control with Imazethapyr Applied at Different Dry-Seeded Rice Growth Stages. Weed Technology, 19, 476-480.

[8]   Steele, G.L., Chandler, J.M. and Mccauley, G.N. (2002) Control of Red Rice (Oryza sativa) in Imidazolinone-Tolerant Rice (O. sativa). Weed Technology, 16, 627-630.[0627:CORROS]2.0.CO;2

[9]   Villa, S.C.C., Marchesan, E., Massoni, P.F.S., Santos, F.M., Avila, L.A. and Telo, G.M. (2006) Red Rice Control in Two Rice (Oryza sativa) Geno-types Tolerant to Imidazolinone Herbicides. Planta Daninha, 24, 549-555.

[10]   Andres, A., Theisen, G., Concenço, G. and Galon, L. (2013) Weed Resistance to Herbicides in Rice Fields in Southern Brazil. In: Price, A.J. and Kelton, J.A., Eds., Herbicides—Current Research and Case Studies in Use, InTech, Rijeka. 3-25.

[11]   Menezes, V.G., Mariot, C.H.P., Kalsing, A. and Goulart, I.C.G.R. (2009) Red Rice (Oryza sativa) Resistant to the Herbicides Imidazolinones. Planta Daninha, 27, 1047-1052.

[12]   Roso, A.C., Merotto Jr., A. and Delatorre, C.A. (2010) Bioassays for Diagnosis of Resistance to the Herbicides Imidazolinones in Rice Plants. Planta Daninha, 28, 411-419.

[13]   Avila, L.A., Marchezan, E., Machado, S.L.O. and Silva, R.P. (2000) Red Rice Seed Bank Evolution under Different Systems of Lowland Utilization. Planta Daninha, 18, 217-230.

[14]   Burgos, N.R., Norsworthy, J.K., Scott, R.C. and Smith, K.L. (2008) Red Rice (Oryza sativa) Status after 5 Years of Imidazolinone-Resistant Rice Technology in Arkansas. Weed Technology, 22, 200-208.

[15]   Burgos, N.R., Shivrain, V.K., Scott, R.C., Mauromoustakos, A., Kuk, Y.I., Sales, M.A. and Bullington, J. (2011) Differential Tolerance of Weedy Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Arkansas, USA to Glyphosate. Crop Protection, 30, 986-994.

[16]   Sartori, G.M.S., Marchesan, E., Azevedo, C.F., Filho, A.C., Roso, R., Coelho, L.L. and Oliveira, M.L. (2013) Effects of Irrigated Rice Sowing Season and Imazapyr + Imazapic Time of Application on Rice Grain Yield and Red Rice Management. Planta Daninha, 31, 631-644.

[17]   Jasieniuk, M.R., Ahmad, A.M., Sherwood, J., Fire-stone, L., Perez-Jones, A., Lanini, W.T., Mallory-Smith, C.A. and Stednick, Z. (2008) Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) in California: Distribution, Response to Glyphosate and Molecular Evidence for an Al-tered Target Enzyme. Weed Science, 54, 496-502.

[18]   Kaundun, S.S., Zelaya, I.A., Dale, R.P., Lycett, A.J., Carter, P., Sharples, K.R. and McIndoe, E. (2008) Importance of the P106S Tar-get-Site Mutation in Conferring Resistance to Glyphosate in a Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) Population from the Phil-ippines. Weed Science, 56, 637-646.

[19]   Simarmata, M. and Penner, D. (2008) The Basis for Glyphosate Resistance in Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) from California. Weed Science, 56, 181-188.

[20]   Corrigan, K.A. and Harvey, R.G. (2000) Glyphosate with and without Residual Herbicides in No-Till Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 14, 569-577.[0569:GWAWRH]2.0.CO;2

[21]   O’Connell, P.J., Harms, C.T. and Allen, J.R.F. (1998) Metolachlor, S-Metolachlor and Their Role within Sustainable Weed Management. Crop Protection, 17, 207-212.

[22]   Frans, R., Talbert, R., Marx, D. and Crowley, H. (1986) Experimental Design and Techniques for Measuring and Analyzing Plant Responses to Weed Control Practices. In: Camper, N.D., Ed., Southern Weed Science Society, Research Methods in Weed Science, 3rd Edition, WSSA, Champaign, 29-46.

[23]   Embrapa (2009) Meeting of Soybean Research in the Southern Region. 37th Edition, Embrapa Trigo, Porto Alegre, 144 p.

[24]   Senseman, S.A. (2007) Herbicide Handbook. 9th Edition, Weed Science Society of America, Lawrence, 275-278.

[25]   Lamego, F.P., Basso, C.J., Vidal, R.A., Trezzi, M.M., Santi, A.L., Ruchel, Q., Kaspary, T.E. and Gallon, M. (2011) Selectivity of Metolachlor and Alachlor for the “Carioca” Bean. Planta Daninha, 29, 877-883.

[26]   Clewis, S.B., Wilcut, J.W. and Porterfield, D. (2006) Weed Management with S-Metolachlor and Glyphosate Mixtures in Glyphosate-Resistant Strip- and Conventional-Tillage Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Weed Technology, 20, 232-241.

[27]   Ellis, J.L. and Griffin, J.M. (2002) Glyphosate and Broadleaf Herbicide Mixtures for Soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 17, 21-27.[0021:GABHMF]2.0.CO;2