JBBS  Vol.4 No.6 , June 2014
Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Evaluation after Rape: A Case Study of a Teenage Girl
Abstract: Although rape is an event with a high incidence worldwide, there is currently no single consensus about both the general effects and the diagnosis and treatment of this. To evaluate the consequences of rape, a teenage girl was evaluated at two moments: a month-and-a-half and then a year-and-a-half after being raped. Clinical measurements, neuropsychological testing and electroencephalographic recording (EEG) were conducted in four conditions: eyes closed, eyes open, and during performance of two tasks: Towers of Hanoi and Wisconsin. Observations showed subsyndromal symptoms of post-traumatic stress on the first evaluation, and close-to-normal scores on the neuropsychological and cognitive tests in both assessments. Decreased cortical EEG synchronization, mainly in the fast frequencies and in almost all conditions, was obtained in the second evaluation. The results obtained in this study may indicate an early development in the brain, which is discussed in light of current literature on this topic.
Cite this paper: Rizo-Martínez, L. , Guevara, M. , Cerdán, L. , Robles-Aguirre, F. , Sanz-Martin, A. and Hernández-González, M. (2014) Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Evaluation after Rape: A Case Study of a Teenage Girl. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 4, 256-267. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.46027.

[1]   Krug, E.G., Dahlberg, L.L., Mercy, J.A., Zwi, A.B. and Lozano, R. (2002) World Report on Violence and Health. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[2]   Koss, M.P., Gidycz, C.A. and Wisniewski, N. (1987) The Scope of Rape: Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Aggression and Victimization in a National Sample of Higher Education Students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55,162-170.

[3]   Koss, M.P. (1993) Detecting the Scope of Rape: A Review of Prevalence Research Methods. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 198-222.

[4]   Vicary, J.R., Klingaman, L.R. and Harkness, W.L. (1995) Risk Factors Associated with Date Rape and Sexual Assault of Adolescent Girls. Journal of Adolescence, 18, 289-306.

[5]   Mills, C.S. and Granoff, B.J. (2002) Date and Acquaintance Rape among a Sample of College Students. Social Work, 37, 504-509.

[6]   Browne, A. and Finkelhor, D. (1986) Impact of Child Sexual Abuse: A review of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66-77.

[7]   Bagley, C. and Shewechuk-Dann, D. (1991) Characteristics of 60 Children and Adolescents Who Have a History of Sexual Assault against Others: Evidence from a Controlled Study. Journal of Child and Youth Care, 3, 43-52.

[8]   Conte, J. and Schuerman, J.R. (1987) Factors Associated with an Increased Impact of Child Sexual Abuse. Child Abuse Neglect, 11, 201-211.

[9]   Caffaro-Rouget, A., Lang, R.A. and van Santen, V. (1989) The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Victims’ of Adjustment. Annals of Sex Research, 2, 29-47.

[10]   Paolucci, E.O., Genuis, M.L. and Violato, C.A. (2001) A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Effects of Child Sexual Abuse. The Journal of Psychology, 135, 17-36.

[11]   Andersen, S.L., Tomoda, A., Vincow, E.S., Valente, E., Polcari, A. and Teicher, M.H. (2008) Preliminary Evidence for Sensitive Periods in the Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Regional Brain Development. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 20, 292-301.

[12]   De Kloet, E.R., Vreugdenhil, E., Oitzl, M.S. and Joels, M. (1998) Brain Corticosteroid Receptor Balance in Health and Disease. Endocrine Reviews, 19, 269-301.

[13]   Timko, C.H., Katherine, W., Stovel, K.W., Baumgartner, M. and Moos, R.H. (1995) Acute and Chronic Stressors, Social Resources, and Functioning among Adolescents with Juvenile Rheumatic Disease. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 5, 361-385.

[14]   Mazure, C.M. and Maciejewski, P.K. (2003) A Model of Risk for Major Depression: Effects of Life Stress and Cognitive Style Vary by Age. Depression and Anxiety, 17, 26-33.

[15]   Glass, D.C., Reim, B. and Singer, J.E. (1971) Behavioral Consequences of Adaptation to Controllable and Uncontrollable Noise. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, 244-257.

[16]   Teicher, M.H., Glod, C.A., Surrey, J. and Swett, C. (1993) Early Childhood Abuse and Limbic System Ratings in Adult Psychiatric Outpatients. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 5, 301-306.

[17]   Heim, C., Newport, D.J., Heit, S., Graham, Y.P., Wilcox, M., Bonsall, R., Miller, A.H. and Nemeroff, C.B. (2000) Pituitary-Adrenal and Autonomic Responses to Stress in Women after Sexual and Physical Abuse in Childhood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 592-597.

[18]   Bremner, J.D., Randall, P., Vermetten, E., Staib, L., Bronen, R.A., Mazure, C., Capelli, S., McCarthy, G., Innis, R.B. and Charney, D.S. (1997) Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Measurement of Hippocampal Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Report. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 23-32.

[19]   Ito, Y., Teicher, M.H., Glod, C.A. and Ackerman, E. (1998) Preliminary Evidence for Aberrant Cortical Development in Abused Children: A Quantitative EEG Study. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10, 298-307.

[20]   Bremner, J.D., Narayan, M., Staib, L.H., Southwick, S.M., McGlashan, T. and Charney, D.S. (1999) Neural Correlates of Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1787-1795.

[21]   Bremner, J.D., Vythilingam, M., Vermetten, E., Southwick, S.M., McGlashan, T., Staib, L.H., Soufer, R. and Charney, D.S. (2003) Neural Correlates of Declarative Memory for Emotionally Valenced Words in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Early Childhood Sexual Abuse. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 879-889.

[22]   Shaw, J.C. (1981) An Introduction to the Coherence Function and Its Use in EEG Signals Analysis. Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, 5, 279-288.

[23]   Shaw, J.C. (1984) Correlation and Coherence Analysis of the EEG: A Selective Tutorial Review. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 1, 255-266.

[24]   Guevara, M.A. and Corsi-Cabrera, M. (1996) EEG Coherence or EEG Correlation? International Journal of Psycho-physiology, 23, 145-153.

[25]   Ito, Y., Teicher, M.H., Glod, C.A., Harper, D., Magnus, E. and Gelbard, H.A. (1993) Increased Prevalence of Electro-physiological Abnormalities in Children with Psychological, Physical, and Sexual Abuse. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 5, 401-408.

[26]   Miskovic, V., Schmidt, L.A., Georgiades, K., Boyle, M. and Macmillan, H.L. (2010) Adolescent Females Exposed to Child Maltreatment Exhibit Atypical EEG Coherence and Psychiatric Impairment: Linking Early Adversity, the Brain, and Psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 419-432.

[27]   Miskovic, V., Schmidt, L.A., Georgiades, K., Boyle, M. and MacMillan, H.L. (2009) Stability of Resting Frontal Electroencephalogram (EEG) Asymmetry and Cardiac Vagal Tone in Adolescent Females Exposed to Child Maltreatment. Developmental Psychobiology, 51, 474-487.

[28]   Yasik, A.E., Saigh, P.A., Oberfield, R.A. and Halamandaris, P.V. (2007) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Memory and Learning Performance in Children and Adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 382-388.

[29]   Beers, S.R. and De Bellis, M.D. (2002) Neuropsychological Function in Children with Maltreatment-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 483-486.

[30]   Wechsler, D. (1974) Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio.

[31]   Oldfield, R.C. (1971) The Assessment and Analysis of Handedness: The Edinburgh Inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97-113.

[32]   Bryden, M.P. (1977) Measuring Handedness with Questionnaires. Neuropsychologia, 15, 617-624.

[33]   Matute-Villaseñor, E., Roselli, M., Ardila, A. and Ostrosky-Solís, F. (2007) Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (ENI). Manual Moderno, México.

[34]   Guevara, M.A., Rizo, L., Ruiz-Díaz, M. and Hernández-González, M. (2009) HANOIPC3: A Computer Program to Evaluate Executive Functions. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 95, 158-165.

[35]   Jasper, H.H. (1958) The Ten-Twenty Electrode System of the International Federation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 10, 371-375.

[36]   Guevara, M.A., Ramos, J., Hernández-González, M., Madera, H. And Corsi-Cabrera, M. (2000) CAPTUSEN: A System for the Computerized Acquisition of EEG and Event-Related Potentials. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 17, 77-88.

[37]   Guevara, M.A., Hernández-González, M. and Sanz-Martín, A. (2010) CHECASEN: Programa para revisar señales EEG fuera de línea. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Biomédica, 31, 135-141.

[38]   Guevara, M.A., Hernández-González, M., Zarabozo, D. and Corsi-Cabrera, M. (2003) POTENCOR: A Program to Calculate Power and Correlation Spectra of EEG Signals. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 72, 241-250.

[39]   Hickling, E.J. and Blanchard, E.B. (1997) The Private Practice Psychologist and Manual-Based Treatment: A Case Study in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Secondary to Motor Vehicle Accidents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 191-203.

[40]   American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Desorders. 4th Edition, American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington DC.

[41]   Thatcher, R.W., Walker, R.A. and Guidice, S. (1987) Human Cerebral Hemispheres Develop at Different Rates and Ages. Science, 236, 1110-1113.

[42]   Marosi, E., Harmony, T., Sanchez, L., Becker, J., Bernal, J., Reyes, A., Díaz de León, A.E., Rodríguez, M. and Fernández, T. (1992) Maturation of the Coherence of EEG Activity in Normal and Learning disabled Children. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 83, 350-357.

[43]   Mullen, P.E., Romans-Clarkson, S.E., Walton, V.A. and Herbison, G.P. (1998) Impact of Sexual and Physical Abuse on Women’s Mental Health. Lancet, 1, 841-845.

[44]   Masten, A.S. (1999) Resilience Comes of Age: Reflections on the Past and Outlook for the Next Generation of Research. In: Glantz, M.D., Johnson, J. and Huffman, L., Eds., Resilience and Development: Positive Life Adaptations, Plenum, New York, 282-296.

[45]   Silberstein, R.B., Song, J., Nunez, P.L. and Park, W. (2004) Dynamic Sculpting of Brain Functional Connectivity Is Correlated with Performance. Brain Topography, 16, 249-254.

[46]   Ringo, J.L. (1991) Neuronal Interconnection as a Function of Brain Size. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 38, 1-6.

[47]   Thatcher, R.W., North, D. and Biver, C. (2005) EEG and Intelligence: Relations between EEG Coherence, EEG Phase Delay and Power. Clinical Neurophysiology, 116, 2129-2141.

[48]   Pogarell, O., Teipel, S.J., Juckel, G., Gootjes, L., Moller, T., Burger, K., Leinsinger, G., Moller, H.J., Hegerl, U. and Hampel, H. (2005) EEG Coherence Reflects Regional Corpus Callosumarea in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 76, 109-111.

[49]   Sanchez, M.M., Hearn, E.F., Dung, D., Rilling, J.K. and Herndon, J.G. (1998) Differential Rearing Affects Corpus Callosum Size and Cognitive Function of Rhesus Monkeys. Brain Research, 812, 38-49.

[50]   Berrebi, A.S., Fitch, R.H., Ralphe, D.L., Denenberg, J.O., Friedrich Jr., V.L. and Denenberg, V.H. (1988) Corpus Callosum: Region-Specific Effects of Sex, Early Experience and Age. Brain Research, 438, 216-224.

[51]   Denenberg, V.H. (1981) Hemispheric Laterality in Animals and the Effects of Early Experience. Behavioral and Brain Science, 4, 1-49.

[52]   De Bellis, M.D., Keshavan, M.S., Clark, D.B., Casey, B.J., Giedd, J.N., Boring, A.M., Frustaci, K. and Ryan, N.D. (1999) Developmental Traumatology. Part II: Brain Development. Bennett Research Award. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1271-1284.

[53]   De Bellis, M.D., Keshavan, M.S., Shifflett, H., Iyengar, S., Beers, S.R., Hall, J. and Moritz, G. (2002) Brain Structures in Pediatric Maltreatment-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Socio Demographically Matched Study. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 1066-1078.

[54]   Teicher, M.H., Dumont, N.L., Ito, Y., Vaituzis, C., Giedd, J.N. and Andersen, S.L. (2004) Childhood Neglect Is Associated with Reduced Corpus Callosum Area. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 80-85.