OJMS  Vol.1 No.1 , April 2011
Abiotic Sponge Ecology Conditions, Limski Kanal and Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia
ABSTRACT
The Limski kanal, a semi-closed inlet (channel-like bay) located on the western coast of Istria (Croatia), is an extraordinary sponge habitat. Research on the marine ecosystem has been conducted there for more than 100 years. Today, 42 valid Porifera species are described. 139 species are listed for the area around Rovinj and 159 species for the northern Adriatic Sea. While several scientists described the sponge fauna, information on the abiotic situation or an explanation for the diversity differences is missing. This study interprets physicochemical and ecological parameters including depth profiles (temperature, salinity, pH-value, oxygen, water current velocity, photosynthetically active radiation [PAR], water transparency and nutrients). Their variances are linked with the distribution patterns of the prevailing sponge fauna. The channel is characterised as predominantly marine habitat. Although a shallow sediment barrier and a headland reduce the impact of the northern Adriatic Sea, differences between the channel and the open sea seem to be limited. Compared to the more homogenous water body of the Adriatic sampling locations, the channel shows variations and gradients of ecological parameters between different locations (e.g., due to freshwater influx: nutrients, temperature, oxygen content, salinity and water current velocity) – this offering habitat diversity. The sponge fauna changes along those ecological gradients. It is dominated by the photophilic species Aplysina aerophoba and Chondrilla nucula, but sciaphilic species such as Dysidea avara, Axinella polypoides and Aplysina cavernicola can be found, too. Some specialised species (e.g., Geodia cydonium, Tethya aurantium) even populate the muddy bottom of the channel.

Cite this paper
A. Klöppel, C. Messal, M. Pfannkuchen, J. Matschullat, W. Zucht, B. Hamer and F. Brümmer, "Abiotic Sponge Ecology Conditions, Limski Kanal and Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia," Open Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2011, pp. 18-30. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2011.11002.
References
[1]   Müller, W. E. G., Batel, R., Schr?der, H. C. and Müller, I.M. (2004) Traditional and modern biomedical pros- pecting: Part I - the history, sustainable exploitation of biodiversity (sponges and invertebrates) in the Adriatic Sea in Rovinj (Croatia). Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 1, 71-82.

[2]   Müller, W.E.G., Brümmer, F., Batel, R., Müller, I.M. and Schr?der, H.C. (2003) Molecular biodiversity. Case study: Porifera (sponges). Naturwissenschaften 90, 103-120.

[3]   Müller, W.E.G., Schr?der, H.C., Wiens, M., Perovic- Ottstadt, S., Batel, R. and Müller, I.M. (2004) Traditional and modern biomedical prospecting: Part II - the benefits, approaches for a sustainable exploitation of biodiversity (secondary metabolites and biomaterials from sponges). Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 1, 1-12.

[4]   Müller, W.E.G. and Zahn, R.K. (1968) Tethya limski n. sp., eine Tethyide aus der Adria (Porifera: Homosclerophorida: Tethyidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 49, 469-478.

[5]   Müller, I.M., Zahn, R.K., Zahn, G., Rijavec, M., Batel, R., Kurelec, B. and Müller, W.E.G. (1983) Description of Geodia rovinjensis n.sp. on the basis of immunological and morphological criteria. Thalassia Jugoslavica 19, 279-283.

[6]   Zucht, W. (2005) ?kologie und Taxonomie als Grundlage mariner Biotechnologie am Beispiel adriatischer Poriferen, PhD thesis, Universit?t Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

[7]   Paul, J. (1970) Sedimentologische Untersuchungen eines küstennahen mediterranen Schlammbodens (Limski kanal, n?rdliche Adria). Geologische Rundschau 60, 205-222.

[8]   Paul, J. (1970) Sedimentologische Untersuchungen im Limski kanal und vor der istrischen Küste (n?rdliche Adria). G?ttinger Arbeiten zur Geologie und Pal?ontologie 7, 1-75.

[9]   Schmidt, H. (1935) Die binomische Einteilung der fossilen Meeresb?den. Fortschritte der Geologie und Pal?ontologie 12, 1-154.

[10]   Hinze, C. and Meischner, D. (1968) Gibt es rezente Rot-Sedimente in der Adria? Marine Geology 6, 53-71.

[11]   Vatova, A. (1928) Compendio della Flora e Fauna del Mare Adriatico presso Rovigno. Memoria R. Comitato Talassografico Italiano 143, 1-613.

[12]   Brümmer, F., Calcinai, B., G?tz, M., Leitermann, F., Nickel, M., Sidri, M. and Zucht, W. (2004) Overview on the sponge fauna of the Limski kanal, Croatia, Northern Adriatic Sea. Bolletino dei Musei e degli Istituti biologici dell′Universita di Genova 68, 219-227.

[13]   Messer, R. (2007) Cladocora caespitosa – Vorkommen im Limski kanal, Kroatien – Verbreitung und Kontrollfaktoren, Diploma thesis, Universit?t Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

[14]   Ha?lwanter, R. (2007) Sedimentologische und ?kologis- che Untersuchungen im Limski kanal/Kroatien, Diploma thesis, Universit?t Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

[15]   Kruzic, P. and Pozar-Domac, A. (2003) Banks of the coral Cladocora caespitosa (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) in the Adriatic Sea. Coral Reefs 22, 536.

[16]   Vatova, A. (1931) La fauna bentonica del Canal di Leme in Istria. Memoria R. Comitato Talassografico Italiano 181, 1-10.

[17]   Vatova, A. and Di Villagrazia, P.M. (1950) Sulle condizioni idrografiche del Canal die Leme in Istria. Nova Thalassia 1, 1-68.

[18]   Von Daniels, C.H. (1970) Jahreszeitliche ?kologische Beobachtungen an Foraminiferen im Limski kanal bei Rovinj/Jugoslawien (n?rdliche Adria). Geologische Rundschau 60, 192-204.

[19]   Sidri, M. (2004) Chondrilla nucula (Porifera, Demospongiae): An example of successful plasticity. Ecological and morphological aspects., PhD thesis, Universit?t Stuttgart.

[20]   Gillet, P. (1985/1986) Annelides Polychétes des fonds meubles du Canal de Lim près de Rovinj (Yugoslavie). Thalassia Jugoslavica 21/22, 127-138.

[21]   Kuzmanovic, N. (1985) Preliminarna istrazivanja dinamike vodenih masa Limskog kanala (Zavrsni izvjetstaj). Rep Institut Ruder Bo?kovic, OOUR Centar za istrazivanje mora, Rovinj 1-27.

[22]   Uffenorde, H. (1970) Zur Ostracoden-Fauna eines marinen Schlammbodens an der istrischen Küste (Limski kanal, NW-Jugoslawien). Geologische Rundschau 60, 223-234.

[23]   Wilkinson, C.R. and Vacelet, J. (1979) Transplantation of marine sponges to different conditions of light and current. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 37, 91-104.

[24]   Becerro, M.A. and Paul, V.J. (2004) Effects of depth and light on secondary metabolites and cyanobacterial symbionts of the sponge Dysidea granulosa. Marine Ecology Progress Series 280, 115-128.

[25]   Tyler, J.E. (1968) The Secchi disc. Limnology and Oceanography 13, 1-6.

[26]   Nümann, W. (1941) Der N?hrstoffhaushalt der nord?stlichen Adria. Thalassia 5, 1-68.

[27]   Valderrama, D. and Zea, S. (2003) Esquemas de distribución de esponjas arrecifales (Porifera) del noroccidente del golfo de Urabá, Caribe sur, Colombia. Boletín de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras 32, 37-56.

[28]   Beug, H.-J. (1977) Vegetationsgeschichtliche Unter- suchungen im Küstenbereich von Istrien (Jugoslawien). Flora 166, 357-381.

[29]   Zavodnik, D. (1971) Contribution to the dynamics of benthic communities in the region of Rovinj (Northern Adriatic). Thalassia Jugoslavica 7, 447 - 514.

[30]   Van Soest, R.W.M., Boury-Esnault, N., John Hooper, J.N.A., Rützler, K., de Voogd, N.J., Alvarez, B., Hajdu, E., Pisera, A.B., Vacelet, J., Manconi, R., Schoenberg, C., Janussen, D., Tabachnick, K.R. and Klautau, M. (2008) World Porifera database <www.marinespecies.org/pori- fera> (12.01.2009).

[31]   Blunt, J.W., Copp, B.R., Hu, W.-P., Munro, M.H.G., Northcote, P.T. and Prinsep, M.R. (2007) Marine natural products. Natural Product Reports 24, 31-86.

[32]   Sipkema, D., Franssen, C.R., Osinga, R., Tramper, J. and Wijffels, R.H. (2005) Marine sponges as pharmacy. Marine Biotechnology 7, 142-162.

[33]   Müller, W.E.G., Schatton, W.F.H. and Gudrum, M. (1991) Verwendung von Avarol oder dessen Derivaten zur Bek?mpfung von entzündlichen systemischen und dermatologischen Erkrankungen. International Patent Application DE 1991-4137093.

[34]   Graeffe, E. (1882) übersicht der Seethierfauna des Golfes von Triest. Arbeiten aus den zoologischen Instituten der Universit?t Wien und der zoologischen Station in Triest 4, 313-321.

[35]   Buccich, G. (1886) Alcune spugne dell'Adriatico sonosciute e nuove. Bolletino della Società Adriatica di Scienze Naturali in Trieste 9, 222-225.

[36]   Breitfuss, L.L. (1897) Catalog der Calcarea der Zoologischen Sammlung des K?niglichen Museums für Naturkunde zu Berlin. Archiv für Naturgeschichte: Zeitschrift für systematische Zoologie 63, 205-226.

[37]   Rützler, K. (1967) Liste und Verteilung der Poriferen aus der Umgebung von Rovinj. Thalassia Jugoslavica 3, 79-87.

[38]   Müller, W.E.G., Zahn, R.K., Kurelec, B. and Müller, I.M. (1984) Catalogue of the sponges near Rovinj. Thalassia Jugoslavica 20, 13 - 23.

[39]   Pansini, M. and Longo, C. (2003) A review of the Mediterranean Sea sponge biogeography with, in appendix, a list of the demosponges hitherto recorded from this sea. Biogeographia 24, 57-73.

[40]   Rützler, K. (1965) Substratstabilit?t im marinen Benthos als ?kologischer Faktor, dargestellt am Beispiel adriatischer Porifera. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie 50, 281-292.

[41]   Barnes, D.K. (1999) High diversity of tropical intertidal zone sponges in temperature, salinity and current extremes. African Journal of Ecology 37, 424-434.

[42]   Bell, J.J. and Barnes, D.K.A. (2000) The distribution and prevalence of sponges in relation to environmental gradients within a temperate sea lough: Inclined cliff surfaces. Diversity and Distributions 6, 305-323.

[43]   Bell, J.J. and Barnes, D.K.A. (2000) The influences of bathymetry and flow regime upon the morphology of sublittoral sponge communities. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 80, 707-718.

[44]   Bell, J.J. and Barnes, D.K.A. (2000) The distribution and prevalence of sponges in relation to environmental gradients within a temperate sea lough: Vertical cliff surfaces. Diversity and Distributions 6, 283-303.

[45]   Bell, J.J., Barnes, D.K.A. and Shaw, C. (2002) Branching dynamics of two species of arborescent demosponge: The effect of flow regime and bathymetry. Journal of the Ma-rine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82, 279-294.

[46]   Bell, J.J., Barnes, D.K.A. and Turner, J.R. (2002) The importance of micro and macro morphological variation in the adaptation of a sublitoral demosponge to current extremes. Marine Biology 140, 75-81.

[47]   Zucht, W., Sidri, M., Brüm-mer, F., Jaklin, A. and Hamer, B. (2008) Ecology and distribu-tion of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba (Porifera, Demospongiae) in the Limski kanal (Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 17, 890-901.

[48]   Proksch, P., Ebel, R., Edrada, R.A., Wray, V. and Steube, K. (2003) Bioactive natural products from marine invertebrates and associated fungi. In: Müller, W.E.G. (ed), Sponges (Porifera), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 117-142.

[49]   Hart, J.B., Lill, R.E., Hickford, S.J.H., Blunt, J.W. and Munro, M.H.G. (2000) The halichondrins: Chemistry, biology, supply and delivery. In: Fusetani, N. (ed), Drugs from the sea, Karger, Basel, Switzerland, pp. 134-153.

[50]   Lewis, E.L. and Perkin, R.G. (1978) Salinity: Its definition and calcu-lation. Journal of Geophysical Research 83, 466-478.

[51]   (1997) Anleitung zur Bestimmung des gesamten organischen Kohlenstoffs (TOC) und des gel?sten organischen Kohlenstoffs (DOC), in DIN EN 1484. Normenausschu? Wasserwesen (NAW) im DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V.: Germany.

[52]   G?tz, M. and Leitermann, F. (2001) Videometrische Erfassung der Str?mung im Nahfeld verschiedener Porifera Arten des westmediterranen Litorals, Student research project, Universit?t Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

[53]   Messal, C. (2006) Abiotic characterisation of the Limski kanal, Croatia, Diploma thesis, Technische Univer-sit?t Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany.

[54]   Fisher, R., Corbet, A. and Williams, C. (1943) The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a ran-dom sample of an animal population. Journal of Animal Ecol-ogy 12, 42-58.

[55]   Whittaker, R., Willis, K. and Field, R. (2001) Scale and species richness: towards a general, hierar-chical theory of species diversity. Journal of Biogeorgraphy 28, 453-470.

[56]   Rützler, K. (1965) Systematik und ?kologie der Poriferen aus Litoral-Schattengebieten der Nordadria. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und ?kologie der Tiere 55, 1-82.

[57]   Bray, R.J. and Curtis, J.I. (1957) An ordination of upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27, 325-349.

[58]   Puddu, A., Zoppini, A. and Pettine, M. (2000) Dissolved organic matter and microbial food web interactions in the marine environment: The case of the Adriatic Sea. International Journal of Environment and Pollu-tion 13, 473-494.

[59]   Kl?ppel, A., Pfannkuchen, M., Putz, A., Proksch, P. and Brümmer, F. (2008) Ex situ cultivation of Aplysina spp. close to in situ conditions: Ecological, biochemi-cal and histological aspects. Marine Ecology 29, 259-272.

[60]   Bihari, N., Micic, M. and Fafandel, M. (2004) Seawater quality along the Adriatic coast, Croatia, based on toxicity data. Environmental Toxicology 19, 109-114.

[61]   Steuer, A. (1933) Zur Fauna des Canal di Leme bei Rovigno. Thalassia 1, 1-44.

[62]   Kaufeld, L., Dittmer, K. and Doberitz, R. (1998) Mittelmeerwetter, Vol 3, Delius Klasing, Bielefeld, pp. 1-216.

[63]   Riedl, R. (1966) Biologie der Meereshoehlen, Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg und Berlin, pp. 1-636.

[64]   Meyer, W., Sidri, M. and Brümmer, F. (2006) Glycohistochemistry of a marine sponge, Chondrilla nucula (Porifera, Demospongiae), with remarks on a possibly related antimicrobial defense strategy and a note on exopinacoderm function. Marine Biology 150, 313-319.

[65]   Rützler, K. (1970) Spatial competition among Porifera: Solution by epizoism. Oecologia 5, 85-95.

 
 
Top