Health  Vol.6 No.12 , June 2014
Prevalence and Risk of Anemia in Type-2 Diabetic Patients
Abstract: Aim: To determine the prevalence and risk of anemia in type-2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, the incidence and risk of anemia in these patients were assessed according to gender and glycemic control status. Methods: The study group comprised 200 patients with type-2 diabetes. Patients were divided into groups according to glycemic control and gender. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose level, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of subjects were evaluated. The presence of anemia was defined by a hemoglobin level <13.0 g/dl for men and <12.0 g/dl for women. The patients were considered as diabetic if he/she had glycated hemoglobin >6.5%, fasting blood glucose >126 mg/dl and random blood glucose >200 mg/dl. Result: 63% of diabetic patients had anemia. There was higher incidence and risk of anemia in females (36%) as compared to males (27%) (p < 0.05) and in poorly controlled diabetes HbA1C >7.5% (49.5%) compared to those with controlled diabetes HbA1C < 7.5% (13.5%) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that poor glycemic control and gender difference are associated with the incidence of anemia in type II diabetes. Our findings suggest the need of screening for anemia in diabetes out-patient clinics. Routine hematological tests along with blood glucose level should be mandatory in order to make therapeutic decisions for the treatment of anemia in type II diabetes mellitus.
Cite this paper: Sharif, A. , Younus, S. , Baig, K. and Ali, N. (2014) Prevalence and Risk of Anemia in Type-2 Diabetic Patients. Health, 6, 1415-1419. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.612173.

[1]   Khattab, M., Khader, Y.S., Al-Khawaldeh, A. and Ajlouni, K. (2010) Factors Associated with Poor Glycemic Control among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complication, 24, 84-89.

[2]   World Health Organization (2008) WHO Ranks Pakistan 7th on Diabetes Prevalence List. The Nation, Karachi.

[3]   Johnson, L.J., Gregory, L.C., Christenson, R.H. and Harmening, D.M. (2001) Appleton and Lange Series Outline Review Clinical Chemistry. McGraw-Hill, New York, 10-15.

[4]   Thomas, M.C., Maclsaac, R.J., Tsalamandris, C., Molyneaux, L., Goubina, I., Fulcher, G., Yue, D. and Jerums, G. (2004) The Burden of Anaemia in Type 2 Diabetes and the Role of Nephropathy: A Cross-Sectional Audit. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 19, 1792-1797.

[5]   Adejumo, B.I., Dimkpa, U., Ewenighi, C.O., Onifade, A.A., Mokogwu, A.T., Erhabor, T.A., Ukatu, E. and Nnatuanya, I.N. (2012) Incidence and Risk of Anemia in Type-2 Diabetic Patients in the Absence of Renal Impairment. Health Journal, 4, 204-308.

[6]   Cawood, T.J., Buckley, U., Murray, A., Corbett, M., Dillon, D., Goodwin, B. and Sreenan, S. (2006) Prevalance of Anemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 175, 25-27.

[7]   Viteri, F.E. (1998) A New Concept in the Control of Iron Deficiency: Community Based Preventive Supplementation of at Risk Groups by Weakly Intake of Iron Supplements. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 11, 46-60.

[8]   Bosman, D.R., Winkler, A.S., Marsden, J.T., Macdougall, I.C. and Watkins, P.J. (2001) Anaemia with Erythropoietin Deficiency Occurs Early in Diabetic Nephropathy. Diabetes Care, 24, 495-499.

[9]   Dikow, R., Schwenger, V., Schomig, M. and Ritz, E. (2002) How Should We Manage Anaemia in Patients with Diabetes? Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 17, 67-72.

[10]   Craig, K.J., Williams, J.D., Riley, S.G., Smith, H., Owens, D.R., Worthing, D., Cavill, I. and Phillips, A.O. (2005) Anemia and Diabetes in the Absence of Nephropathy. Diabetes, Care, 28, 1118-1123.

[11]   Kojima, K. and Totsuka, Y. (1995) Anemia Due to Reduce Serum Erythropoietin Concentration in Non Uremic Diabetic Patients. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 27, 229-233.

[12]   Ahmed, A.M., Hussein, A. and Ahmed, N.H. (2000) Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy. Saudi Medical Journal, 21, 1034-1037.

[13]   Bolen, S., Wilson, L., Vassy, J., et al. (2011) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Oral Diabetes Medications for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

[14]   Bev Betcher, Association Manager— (2009) Recognizing Anemia in People with Diabetes.

[15]   American Diabetes Association (2012) Executive Summary: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 35, S4.

[16]   World Health Organization (1968) Nutritional Anemia. Report of a WHO Scientific Group, WHO, Geneva.

[17]   Al-Sultan, F.A. and Al-Zanki, N. (2005) Clinical Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Kuwait. Kuwait Medical Journal, 37, 98-104.

[18]   Habib, S.S. and Aslam, M. (2003) Risk Factors, Knowledge and Health Status in Diabetic Patients. Saudi Medical Journal, 24, 1219-1224.

[19]   Fox, K.M., Gerber, R.A., Bolinder, B., Chen, J. and Kumar, S. (2006) Prevalence of Inadequate Glycemic Control among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Data Base: A Series of Retrospective Analysis of Data from 1998 through 2002. Clinical Therapeutics, 28, 388-395.

[20]   Bonakdaran, S., Gharebaghi, M. and Vahedian, M. (2011) Prevalence of Anemia in Type-2 Diabetes and Role of Renal Involvement. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, 22, 286-290.

[21]   Toyry, J.P., Niskanen, L.K., Mantyseari, M.J., Lansimies, E.A. and Uusitupa, M.I. (1996) Occurrence, Predictors and Clinical Significance of Autonomic Neuropathy in NIDDM. Ten-Year Follow-Up from the Diagnosis. Diabetes, 45, 308-315.

[22]   Griac, K., Williams, J.D., Riley, S.G., et al. (2005) Anemia and Diabetes in the Absence of Nephropathy. Diabetes Care, 28, 18-23.

[23]   Narjis, R. and Sania, N. (2008) Pakistan’s Health Policy: Appropriateness and Relevance to Women’s Health Needs. Health Policy, 88, 269-281.