AJMB  Vol.1 No.1 , April 2011
Chromosomal aberrations and nucleic acids systems affected by some Egyptian medicinal plants used in treating female pregnant diabetic rats
ABSTRACT
The influences of medicinal plants Juniperus Phoenicea (Araar), Hyphaene thebaica (Doum), An-astatica hierochuntica (Kafta) and Cleome droserifolia (Sammo) as antidiabetic agents were investigated using female pregnant albino rats. Female rats were injected with 60 mg/kg b.w. alloxan to induce diabe-tes. Diabetic rats treated orally with the methanol extracts of tested plants till the 19 day of gestation. The present studies include the frequencies of chro-mosomal aberrations and nucleic acid system of liver in the female pregnant rats and their embryos. The results showed that injection of alloxan caused highly significant increase in chromosomal aberrations as well as in blood glucose levels as a result of diabetes in pregnant females. It also caused a high incidence of chromosomal deviation in embryos and decreased the liver soluble protein contents of female rats and their embryos. These effects in alloxanized animals were treated and improved by ingestion of the methanol extracts of the tested plants (Araar, Doum, Kafta and Somma) in which under their treatments, the inceased level of blood glu-cose of diabetic rats was deceased. Ingestion with the plants methanolic extracts improved and normalized the effects of diabetes in nucleic acids values of liver tissues. These were accompanied with nucleases (RNAase and DNAase) activities. The inhibited ac-tivities of both DNA ase and RNA ase of pregnant rats and their embryos were stimulated and read-justed around the normal values. Also administration of the plants methanol extracts decreased the per-centage of chromosomal aberrations in the female rats and embryos. It is concluded that there are some biochemical dynamics which might occur in the metabo-lism of glucose, nucleic acids and proteins in order to prevent or to reduce the oxidative stress of diabetes by flavonoides treatment.

Cite this paper
nullAbdou, H. , Salah, S. , Raouf, A. and Abdel-Rahim, E. (2011) Chromosomal aberrations and nucleic acids systems affected by some Egyptian medicinal plants used in treating female pregnant diabetic rats. American Journal of Molecular Biology, 1, 26-32. doi: 10.4236/ajmb.2011.11004.
References
[1]   Adeghate, E. (1999) Effect of subcutaneous pancreatic tissue transplants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. II. Endocrine and metabolic functions. Tissue and Cell, 31, 73-83. doi:10.1054/tice.1999.0007

[2]   Hansen, M. (1998) Pathophysiology: Foundations of disease and Clinical Intervention. 1st Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 851-852.

[3]   Basu, A., Basu, R., Shah, P., Vella, A., Johnson, C.M., Nair, K.S., Jensen, M.D., Schwenk, W.F. and Rizza, R.A. (2000) Effects of type 2 diabetes on the ability of insulin and glucose to regulate splanchnic and muscle glucose metabolism: Evidence for a defect in hepatic glucokinase activity. Diabetes, 49, 272-283. doi:10.2337/diabetes.49.2.272

[4]   Adeghate, E. (1999) Effect of subcutaneous pancreatic tissue transplants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. I. Morphological studies on normal, diabetic and transplanted pancreatic tissues. Tissue and cell, 31, 66-72. doi:10.1054/tice.1999.0008

[5]   Boon, N.A., Chilvers, E.R., Haslett, C. and Hunter, J.A. (1999) Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 482-483.

[6]   El-Ridi, M.R. (2001) A possible hypoglycemic effect of some medicinal plants used in united Arab emirates. Bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Physiology and Science, 21, 9-16.

[7]   Alarcon-Aguilara, F.J., Ramon-Ramos, R., Perez-Gutierrez, S., Aguilar-Contreras, A., Contreras-Weber, C.C. and Flores-Saenz, J.L. (1998) Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as anti diabetics. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 61, 101-110.

[8]   Bolkent, S., Yanardag, R., Tabakoglu-Oguz, A. and Ozsoy-Sacan, O. (2000) Effect of chard (Beta vulgaris L. Var. Cicla) extract on pancreatic β cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: A morphological and biochemical study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 73, 251-259. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00328-7

[9]   Aybar, M.J., Sanchez Riera, A.N., Grau, A. and Sanchez, S.S. (2001) Hypoglycemic effect of the water extract of smallantus sonchifolius (yacon) leaves in normal and diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 74, 125-132. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00351-2

[10]   Onderoglu, S., Sozer, S., Erbil, K.M., Ortac, R. and Lermioglu, F. (1999) The evaluation of long-term effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf on toxicity induced by streptozotocin administration to rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 51, 1305-1312.

[11]   Rahmy, T.R. and El-Ridi, M.R. (2002) Action of Anastatica hierochuntica plant extract on Islets of langerhans in normal and diabetic rats. Egyptian Journal of Biology, 4, 87-94.

[12]   Lane-Petter, W. and Pearson, A. (1971) Dietary requires. In: The Laboratory Animal Principles and Practice, Academic Press, London and New York, 25-32.

[13]   Lazaro, A. (1949) Alloxan and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Physical Review, 29, 48-51.

[14]   Yosida, T.H. and Amano, K. (1965) Autosomal polymorphism in laboratory bred and wild Norway rats Rattus norvegicus, found in Misima. Chromosoma, 16, 628-667. doi:10.1007/BF00285115

[15]   Romagnano, A., King, A.W., Richer, C.L. and Perrone, M.A. (1985) A direct technique for the preparation of chromosomes from early enquine embryos. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 27, 365-396.

[16]   Astawrov, B.L. (1974) Methods in biochemical development. Nauka, Moscow, 336-339.

[17]   Trinder, P. (1969) Enzymatic determination of glucose in blood serum. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 6, 24.

[18]   Peares, A.G.E. (1985) Histochemistry: Theoretical applied. Volume two: Analytical technology. 4th Edition. Churchill Livingston, Philadelphia.

[19]   Dische, Z. (1995) Color reaction of nucleic acid components. In: E., Chargaff and J.M. Davidoson, Eds., The Nucleic Acids, Academic Press, New York, 270-284.

[20]   Schneider, W.C. (1957) Determination of acid in tissues by pentose analysis. In: Colowick, S.P. and Kaplan, N.O. Ed., Method Etymology, Academic Press, New York, 680-684.

[21]   Lowary, O.H, Resabrought, N.J, Farr, A.L. and Randoll, R.J. (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193, 265-275.

[22]   Bergmeyer, U.H. (1974) Determination of nucleases activity (RNAase and DNAase). In: Method of Enzymatic Analysis (2nd Edition), Academic Press, New York, 447 and 511.

[23]   Sokall, R.R. and Rohlf, F.J. (1995) Biometry. W.H Freeman and Company, New York.

[24]   Choi, J.S., Yokozawa, T. and Oura, H. (1991) Improvement of hyperglycemia and hyperlipemia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats by a methanolic extract of Prunus davidiana stems and its main component, prunin. Planta Medica, 57, 208-211. doi:10.1055/s-2006-960075

[25]   Wang, T., Fontenot, R.D., Soni, M.G., Bucci, T.J. and Mehendale, H.M. (2000) Enhanced hepatotoxicity and toxic outcome of thioacetamide in sterptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 166, 92-100. doi:10.1006/taap.2000.8952

[26]   Bnouham, M., Mekhfi, H., Legssyer, A. and Ziyyat, A. (2002) Medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes in Morocco. International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 10, 33-50.

[27]   Elsner, M., Guldbakke, B., Tiedge, M., Munday, R. and Lenzen, S. (2000) Relative importance of transport and alkylation for pancreatic beta-cell toxicity of streptozotocin. Diabetologia, 43, 1528-1533. doi:10.1007/s001250051564

[28]   Chatterjea, M.N. and Shinde, R (2002) Text book of medical biochemistry. 5th Edition, Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi.

[29]   Ismail, S.A., Ahmed, S.H., Fayed, S.A. and Mohmoud, G.I. (2007) Adiponectin, insulin and nitric oxide levels in hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in addition of streprozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus and normal rats intraperitonially injected with anthocyanin and epicatechin extracts. New Egyptian Journal of Medicine, 36, 135-143.

[30]   Combs, T.P., Wagner, J.A., Berger, J., Doebber, T., Wang, W., Zhang, B., Tanen, M., Berg, A., O’Rahilly, S., Savage, D., Chatterjee, R., Weiss, S., Larson, J., Gottesdiener, R., Gertz, B., Charron, M., Scherer, P. and Moller, D. (2002). Induction of adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 k.d. by PPARγ and agonists a potential mechanism of insulin sensitization. Endocrinology, 143, 998-1007.

[31]   Yamauchi, T., Kamon, J. and Ito, Y. (2003) Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Nature, 423, 762-679. doi:10.1038/nature01705

[32]   Khalifa, T.I.M.A. (1980) A pharmacognostical study of certain species of anastatica. Ph.D. Thesis, Cairo University, Egypt.

[33]   Salah, S.H., Abdou, H.S., Abd El-Azeem A.S.E. (2010) The antioxidative effects of some medicinal plants as hypoglycemic agents on chromosomal aberration and abnormal nucleic acids metabolism produced by diabetes stress in male adult albino rats. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 1, 6-14. doi:10.4236/jdm.2011.11002

[34]   Coskun, O., Kanter, M., Korkmaz, A. and Oter, S. (2005) Quercetin, a flavonoid antoixdant, prevents and protects streptozotocin induced oxidative stress and β-cell damage in rat pancreas. Pharmacological Research, 51, 117-123. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2004.06.002

[35]   Anton, S., Melville, L. and Rena, G. (2007) Epigallocatachin gallate (EG. CG) mimiss insulin action on the transcription factor FOXOIa and elicits cellular responses in the presence and absence of insulin. Cellular Signaling, 19, 378-383. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2006.07.008

[36]   Abdel-Magid, G.I.M. (2007) Biochemical studies on adiponectin. Ph.D.Thesis, Cairo Univiversity, Egypt.

[37]   Adams, R.L.P., Knowler, J.T. and Leader, D.P. (1993) The biochemistry of nucleic acids. 11th Edition, Chepman and Hall Publishers, New York.

 
 
Top