CE  Vol.5 No.10 , June 2014
Relevance of the Knowles Theory in Distance Education
Author(s) Derrick C. Darden*
ABSTRACT
For adult learners, online courses are becoming the preferred way for students to pursue higher education. In the online academic world, the teacher and the student alike have duties that need to be fulfilled in order for the learning process to be successful. The teacher needs to function as process designers and managers. The learner must have the motivation and discipline to fulfill the course requirements and must be highly motivated. This article explores whether the Knowles andragogy theory is relevant to distance education or not and suggests the preferred relevant instructional for today’s adult distance learner. The andragogy model is based on four assumptions related to the concepts that adult distance learners must have the ability, need, the desire to control, and be responsible for their learning. The adult learners’ self-prospective moves from dependency to independency or self-directedness. Furthermore, the teacher must have a more practical, relevant, and self-directive and self-motivated instructional . The conclusion found that the andragogy theory is relative and is not a one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to adults following the assumptions outlined by andragogy model. Additionally, Knowles’ theory promotes self-directing and independence in the adult learner, but not all adult learners embrace these ideals especially if the learner lacks self-confidence.



Cite this paper
Darden, D. (2014) Relevance of the Knowles Theory in Distance Education. Creative Education, 5, 809-812. doi: 10.4236/ce.2014.510094.
References
[1]   Burge, L. (1988). Beyond Andragogy: Some Explorations for Distance Learning Design. Journal of Distance Education, 3, 5-23.

[2]   Bye, D., Pushkar, D., & Conway, M. (2007). Motivation, Interest, and Positive Effect in Traditional and Nontraditional Undergraduate Students. Adult Education Quarterly, 57, 141-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0741713606294235

[3]   Chen, Y., & Lou, H. (2002). Toward an Understanding of the Behavioral Intention to Use a Groupware Application. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC), 14, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/joeuc.2002100101

[4]   Fales, A. W., & Burge, E. J. (1984). Self-Direction by Design: Self-Directed Learning in Distance Course Design. Canadian Journal of University Continuing Education, 10, 68-78.

[5]   Forrest, P. S. III, & Peterson, T. O. (2006) Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5, 113-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2006.20388390

[6]   Gee, D. G. (1990). The Impact of Students’ Preferred Learning Style Variables in a Distance Education Course: A Case Study. Portales: Eastern New Mexico University.

[7]   Ginder, S., & Sykes, A. (2013). Web Tables: Characteristics of Exclusively Distance Education Institutions, by State: 2011- 12, NCES 2013-172. National Center for Education Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013172.pdf

[8]   Grasha, A. (1996). Teaching with Style. Pittsburg, PA: Alliance Publishers.

[9]   Hanson, D., Maushak, N. J., Schlosser, C. A., Anderson, M. L., Sorenson, C., & Simonson, M. (1997). Distance Education: Review of the Literature (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology.

[10]   Kim, K., & Bonk, C. J. (2006). The Future of Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: The Survey Says. Education Quarterly, 29, 22.

[11]   Knowles, M. (1980). The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Andragogy to Pedagogy. Chicago: Associated.

[12]   Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The Adult Learner: The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Boston: Taylor & Francis Ltd.

[13]   Parsad, B., & Lewis, L. (2008). Distance Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions: 2006-07 (NCES2009- 044). Washington DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education.

[14]   Pratt, D. (1988). Andragogy as a Relational Construct. Adult Education Quarterly, 38, 160-181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0001848188038003004

[15]   Robinson, R. (1992). Andragogy Applied to the Open College Learner. Research in Distance Education, 10-13.

[16]   Taylor, E., & Kaye, T. (1986). Andragogy by Design? Control and Self-Direction in the Design of an Open University Course. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 23, 62-69.

 
 
Top