IJG  Vol.5 No.7 , June 2014
Impact of the Human Activities on the Local Climate and Environment of the Suez City in Egypt
Abstract: Surface temperature and vegetation are the major land cover changes that significantly affect on the thermal environment. In the present study, remote sensing techniques were applied to identify the relationship between anthropogenic activities and the thermal environment in the North Gulf of Suez area. Results have indicated that the urbanization and agricultural expansion have been increased during the last 25 years. Although urban areas increased from 49 km2 in 1987 to 57 km2 in 2012, the urban heat island-range declined from very high and high, to moderate and low. An expansion in cultivated areas from 3 km2 in 1987 to 26 km2 in 2012 was responsible for the decline. The results of this study provided valuable information for understanding the local thermal changes that associate rapid urbanization and expansion of cultivated areas. Consequently, this work recommends that proper planning and management regimes for land use and cover changes associated with rapid urbanization will result in positive impacts on the local climate and environment.
Cite this paper: Kaiser, M. (2014) Impact of the Human Activities on the Local Climate and Environment of the Suez City in Egypt. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 700-709. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.57063.

[1]   Weng, Q. (2001) A Remote Sensing-GIS Evaluation of Urban Expansion and Its Impact on Surface Temperature in the Zhujiang Delta, China. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22, 1999-2014.

[2]   Voogt, J.A. and Oke, T.R. (1998) Effects of Urban Surface Geometry on Remotely-Sensed Surface Temperature. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 895-920.

[3]   Voogt, J.A. and Oke, T.R. (2003) Thermal Remote Sensing of Urban Climates. Remote Sensing of Environment, 86, 370-384.

[4]   Yue, W.Z., Liu, Y., Fan, P.L., Ye, X.Y. and Wu, C.F. (2012) Assessing Spatial Pattern of Urban Thermal Environment in Shanghai, China. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 26, 899-911.

[5]   Yue, W.Z. and Xu, J.H. (2008) Impact of Human Activities on Urban Thermal Environment in Shanghai. Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 63, 247-256.

[6]   Kato, S. and Yamaguchi, Y. (2005) Analysis of Urban Heat-Island Effect Using ASTER and ETM Data: Separation of Anthropogenic Heat Discharge and Natural Heat Radiation from Sensible Heat Flux. Remote Sensing of Environment, 99, 44-54.

[7]   Imhoff, M.L., Zhang, P., Wolfe, R.E. and Bounoua, L. (2010) Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect across Biomes in the Continental USA. Remote Sensing of Environment, 114, 504-513.

[8]   Huang, H., Ooka, R. and Kato, S. (2005) Urban Thermal Environment Measurements and Numerical Simulation for an Actual Complex Urban Area Covering a Large District Heating and Cooling System in Summer. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 6362-6375.

[9]   Hart, M. and Sailor, D. (2009) Quantifying the Influence of Land-Use and Surface Characteristics on Spatial Variability in the Urban Heat Island. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 95, 397-406.

[10]   Sun, Q., Wu, Z. and Tan, J. (2012) The Relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Land Use/Land Cover in Guangzhou, China. Environmental Earth Sciences, 65, 1687-1694.

[11]   Weng, Q. (2012) Remote Sensing of Impervious Surfaces in the Urban Areas: Requirements, Methods and Trends. Remote Sensing of Environment, 117, 34-49.

[12]   Xiong, Y., Huang, S., Chen, F., Ye, H., Wang, C. and Zhu, C. (2012) The Impacts of Rapid Urbanization on the Thermal Environment: A Remote Sensing Study of Guangzhou, South China. Remote Sensing, 4, 2033-2056.

[13]   Li, J., Song, C., Cao, L., Zhu, F., Meng, X. and Wu, J. (2011) Impacts of Landscape Structure on Surface Urban Heat Islands: A Case Study of Shanghai, China. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115, 3249-3263.

[14]   Said, R. (1962) The Geology of Egypt. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

[15]   Carlson, T.N., Gillies, R.R. and Schmugge, T.J. (1995) An Interpretation of Methodologies for Indirect Measurement of Soil Content Water. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 77, 191-205.

[16]   Eastman, J.R. (1997) Supervised Classification in IDRISI for Windows Version 2, Tutorial Exercises. Clark University, Worcester, 86-94.

[17]   Lillesand, T.M. and Kiefer, R.W. (2000) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 650 p.

[18]   Lillesand, T.M. and Kiefer, R.W. (1994) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 750 p.

[19]   Lillesand, T.M., Kiefer, R.W. and Chipman, J.W. (2004) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 763 p.

[20]   Mather, P.M. (1999) Computer Processing of Remotely-Sensing Images, an Introduction. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chichester, 1-75.

[21]   Salem, B.B., El-Cibahy, A. and El-Raey, M. (1995) Detection of Land Cover Classes in Agro-Ecosystems of Northern Egypt by Remote Sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 16, 2581-2594.

[22]   Csillage, F. (1986) Comparison of Some Classification Methods on a Set Site (Kiskore, Hungary): Separability as a Measure of Accuracy. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 7, 1705-1714.

[23]   Hixon, M.M., Davis, B.J. and Bauer, M.E. (1981) Sampling Landsat Classification for Crop Area Estimation. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 47, 1343-1348.

[24]   Chander, G. and Markham, B. (2003) Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometric Calibration Procedures and Post Calibration Dynamic Ranges. IEEE Transaction on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 41, 2674-2677.

[25]   Wu, C., Wang, Q., Yang, Z. and Wang, W. (2007) Monitoring Heated Water Pollution of the DaYaWan Nuclear Power Plant Using TM Images. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28, 885-890.

[26]   Van, T.T. and Bao, H.D.X. (2010) Study of the Impact of Urban Development on Surface Temperature Using Remote Sensing in Ho Chi Minh City, North Vietnam. Geographical Research, 48, 86-96.

[27]   Van De Griend, A.A. and Owe, M. (1993) On the Relationship between Thermal Emissivity and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Natural Surfaces. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 14, 1119-1131.

[28]   Liu, L. and Zhang, Y. (2011) Urban Heat Island Analysis Using the Landsat TM Data and ASTER Data: A Case Study in Hong Kong. Remote Sensing, 3, 1535-1552.

[29]   Rouse, J.W., Haas, R.H., Schell, J.A. and Deering, D.W. (1974) Monitoring Vegetation Systems in the Great Plains with ERTS. Proceedings of 3rd Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1 Symposium, Greenbelt, NASA SP-351, 3010-3017.

[30]   Jensen, J.R. (1986) Introductory Digital Image Processing. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 379.

[31]   Ma, Y., Kuang, Y.Q. and Huang, N.S. (2010) Coupling Urbanization Analyses for Studying Urban Thermal Environment and Its Interplay with Biophysical Parameters Based on TM/ETM+ Imagery. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 12, 110-118.

[32]   Oke, T. (1987) Boundary Layer Climates. Routledge, New York.

[33]   Owen, T.W., Carlson, T.N. and Gilles, R.R. (1998) An Assessment of Satellite Remotely Sensed Land Cover Parameters in Quantitatively Describing the Climatic Effect of Urbanization. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 1663-1681.