AJPS  Vol.5 No.13 , June 2014
Effect of Cellulase and Lactic Acid Bacteria on Fermentation Quality and Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Silage
Abstract: The object of this study was to determine the effect of cellulase and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on fermentation quality and chemical composition of wheat straw silage. Silages were prepared using a small-scale fermentation system and the moisture level was adjusted to 60% of fresh matter (FM) with deionized water. Treatments were designed as: control silage without additives, LAB inoculant Lactobacillus casei Z3-1 (1.0 × 106 cfu·g-1 of FM), commercial inoculant L. plantarum FG 1 (1.0 × 106 cfu·g-1 of FM), Z3-1 + cellulase and FG 1 + cellulase. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and crude protein (CP) contents of the wheat straw prior to ensiling were 76.93%, 48.52% and 4.63% of dry matter (DM), respectively. After 30 days of fermentation, the silages treated with LAB and LAB + cellulase had a lower (P < 0.05) pH and higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid content than the control, and the coliform bacteria, yeast and mold were inhibited at the early stage of fermentation. Besides, silages treated with cellulase had lower (P < 0.05) values of ADF and NDF than the control. The results confirmed that the addition of cellulase and LAB contributed to improving the fermentation quality of wheat straw silage.
Cite this paper: Ni, K. , Wang, Y. , Pang, H. and Cai, Y. (2014) Effect of Cellulase and Lactic Acid Bacteria on Fermentation Quality and Chemical Composition of Wheat Straw Silage. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 1877-1884. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.513201.

[1]   Yang, H.Y., Wang, X.F., Liu, J.B., Gao, L.J., Masaharu, I., Yasuoand, I. and Cui, Z.J. (2006) Effects of Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Content on Silage Fermentation of Wheat Straw. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 3, 232-237.

[2]   Liu, R.G., Yu, H. and Huang, Y. (2005) Structure and Morphology of Cellulose in Wheat Straw. Cellulose, 12, 25-34.

[3]   Sun, Q., Gao, F., Yu, Z., Tao, Y., Zhao, S. and Cai, Y. (2012) Fermentation Quality and Chemical Composition of Shrub Silage Treated with lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculants and Cellulase Additives. Animal Science Journal, 83 305-309.

[4]   Cai, Y., Benno, Y., Ogawa, M., Ohmomo, S., Kumai, S. and Nakase, K. (1998) Influence of Lactobacillus spp. from an Inoculants and of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. from Forage Crops on SILAGe. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64, 2982-2987.

[5]   Cai, Y. (1999) Identification and Characterization of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Forage Crops and Their Influence on Silage Fermentation. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 2466-2471.

[6]   Pang, H., Zhang, M., Qin, G., Tan, Z., Li, Z., Wang, Y. and Cai, Y. (2011) Identification of lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Corn Stovers. Animal Science Journal, 82, 642-653.

[7]   Zahiroddini, H., Baah, J., Absalom, W. and McAllister, T.A. (2004) Effects of an Inoculant and Hydrolytic Enzymes on Fermentation and Nutritive Value of Whole Crop Barley Silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 117, 317-330.

[8]   Eun, J.S. and Beauchemin, K.A. (2007) Relationship between Enzymic Activities and in Vitro Degradation of Alfalfa Hay and Corn Silage. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 145, 53-67.

[9]   AOAC (1990) Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, Arlington.

[10]   Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A. (1991) Methods for Dietary Fiber, Neutral Detergent Fiber, and Non-Starch Polysaccharides in Relation to Animal Nutrient. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.

[11]   Troller, J.A. and Stinson, J.V. (1981) Moisture Requirements for Growth and Metabolite Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 42, 682-687.

[12]   Zheng, Y., Matthew, Y., Hnin A., Cheng, Y., Yu, G., Guo, H., Zhang, R., Vander Gheynst, J. and Jenkins, B.M. (2011) Influence of Moisture on Microbial Activity and Silage Quality during Ensilage and Food Processing Residues. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 34, 987-995.

[13]   Cai, Y., Benno, Y., Ogawa, M. and Kumai, S. (1999) Effect of Applying Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Forage Crops on Fermentation Characteristics and Aerobic Deterioration of Silage. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 520-526.

[14]   McDonald, P., Hendersonand, N. and Heron, S. (1991) The Biochemistry of Silage. 2nd Edition, Chalcombe Publication, Marlow.

[15]   Muck, R.E. (1989) Initial Bacterial Numbers on Lucerne Prior to Ensiling. Grass Forage Science, 44, 19-25.

[16]   Guan, W.T., Ashbell, G., Hen, Y. and Weinberg, Z.G. (2002) The Effect of Microbial Inoculants Applied at Ensiling on Sorghum Silage Characteristics and Aerobic Stability. Agricultural Sciences in China, 1, 1174-1179.

[17]   Sun, Z., Liu, S., Tayo, G., Tang, S., Lin, B., He, Z., Hang, X., Zhou, Z. and Wang, M. (2009) Effects of Cellulase or Lactic Acid Bacteria on Silage Fermentation and in Vitro Gas Production of Several Morphological Fractions of Maize stover. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 152, 219-231.

[18]   Cheng, C.L., Lo, Y.C., Lee, K.S., Lee, D.J., Lin, C.Y. and Chang, J.S. (2011) Biohydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Feedstock. Bioresource Technology, 102, 8514-8523.

[19]   Mandebvu, P., West, J.W., Froetschel, M.A., Hatfield, R.D., Gates, R.N. and Hill, G.M. (1999) Effect of Enzyme or Microbial Treatments of Bermuda-Grass Forages before Ensiling on Cell Wall Composition, End Products of Silage Fermentation and in Situ Digestion Kinetics. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 77, 317-329.

[20]   Kozelov, L.K., Lliev, F., Hristov, A.N., Zaman, S. and McAllister, T.A. (2008) Effect of Fibrolytic Enzyme and an Inoculation in Vitro Degradability and Gas Production of Low-Dry Matter Alfalfa Silage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 88, 2568-2575.

[21]   Stokes, M.R. and Chen, J. (1994) Effects of an Enzyme-Inoculant Mixture on the Course of Fermentation of Corn Silage. Journal of Daily Science, 77, 3401-3409.

[22]   Shepherd, A.C. and Kung Jr., L. (1996) Effects of an Enzyme Additive on Composition of Corn Silage Ensiled at Various Stages of Maturity. Journal of Dairy Science, 79, 1767-1773.