OJAP  Vol.3 No.2 , June 2014
Use of Ventilation-Index in the Development of Exposure Model for Indoor Air Pollution—A Review
Abstract: In indoor environment, emission factor of the cooking fuel plays a vital role in determining correlation between exposure assessment and health effects. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures are widely influenced by the ventilation status. An optimum control of the air change rate has also significant impact on the exposure pattern. A number of studies revealed that the indoor particulates and gaseous exposures, resulting from the combustion of various cooking fuels, are associated with significant adverse health effects on pregnant mothers and new born babies. The impacts of ventilation status on air pollution exposure in households’ kitchens or living rooms have not been explored enough. Except a few studies with concrete rooms, especially in industries, no other studies have been established on the correlation between the ventilation index and air pollution exposure. The intent of this review is to discuss reported findings focused on the ventilation and exposure to air pollution. This will obviously help better understanding to modulate exposure profile in household condition using simple tool of ventilation measurement.
Cite this paper: Mukhopadhyay, K. , Ramasamy, R. , Mukhopadhyay, B. , Ghosh, S. , Sambandam, S. and Balakrishnan, K. (2014) Use of Ventilation-Index in the Development of Exposure Model for Indoor Air Pollution—A Review. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 3, 33-41. doi: 10.4236/ojap.2014.32004.


[2]   WHO (2012) Burden of Disease from Indoor Air Pollution for 2012.




[6]   Cherrie, J.W., Maccalman, L., Fransman, W., Tielemans, E., Tischer, M. and Tongeren, M.V. (2011) Revisiting the Effect of Room Size and General Ventilation on the Relationship between Near-and Far-Field Air Concentrations. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 55, 1006-1015.



[9]   Laussmann, D. and Helm, D. (2011) Chemistry, Emission Control, Radioactive Pollution and Indoor Air Quality. Robert Koch Institute, Berliin, 365-406.

[10]   (2006) National Center for Energy Management and Building Technologies (NCEMBT-070914). Final Report, September.

[11]   CEN/TC 156 (2006) Ventilation for Buildings—Calculation Methods for the Determination of Air Flow Rates in Buildings Including Infiltration.


[13]   Chao, J., Mu, X., Xue, Y., Li, F., Li, W., Lin, C.H., Pei, J. and Chen, Q. (2013) A Modified Tracer-Gas-Concentration Decay Method for Ventilation Rate Measurements in Large, Long, and Narrow Spaces. Indoor and Built Environment.

[14]   Du, L., Batterman, S., Godwin, C., Chin, J.Y., Parker, E., Breen, M., Brakefield, W., Robins, T. and Lewis, T. (2012) Air Change Rates and Interzonal Flows in Residences, and the Need for Multi-Zone Models for Exposure and Health Analyses. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9, 4639-4662.


[16]   Ucci, M., Ridley, I., Pretlove, S., Davies, M., Mumovic, D., Oreszczyn, T., McCarthy, M. and Singh, J. (2004) Ventilation Rates and Moisture-Related Allergens in UK Dwellings. 2nd WHO International Housing and Health Symposium, Vilnius, 29 September-4 October 2004, 328-334.

[17]   Sundell, J., Wickman, M., Pershagen, G. and Nordvall, S.L. (1995) Ventilation in Homes Infested by House-Dust Mites. Allergy, 50, 106-112.

[18]   Emenius, G., Svartengren, M., Korsgaard, J., Nordvall, L., Pershagen, G. and Wickman, M. (2004) Building Characteristics, Indoor Air Quality and Recurrent Wheezing in Very Young Children (BAMSE). Indoor Air, 14, 34-42.

[19]   Nielsen, O. (1984) Quality of Air and the Amount of Fresh Air in Classrooms. Indoor Air: Buildings, Ventilation and Thermal Climate. In: Berglund, B., Lindvall, T. and Sundell, J., Eds., Swedish Council for Building Research, 5, 221-226.

[20]   Seppanen, O.A., Fisk, W.J. and Mendell, M.J. (1999) Association of Ventilation Rates and CO2 Concentrations with Health and Other Responses in Commercial and Institutional Buildings. Indoor Air, 9, 226-252.

[21]   Apte, M.G., Fisk, W.J. and Daisey, J.M. (2000) Associations between Indoor CO2 Concentrations and Sick Building Syndrome Symptoms in US Office Buildings: An Analysis of the 1994-1996 BASE Study Data (LBNL 44385). Indoor Air, 10, 246-257.

[22]   Turk, B.H., Grimsrud, D.T., Brown, J.T., Geisling-Sobotka, K., Harrison, J. and Prill, R.J. (1987) Commercial Building Ventilation Rates and Particle Concentrations. In: Proceedings of Indoor Air’87: The 4th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, West Berlin, 17-21 August 1987, 610-614.

[23]   Turk, B.H., Grimsrud, D.T., Brown, J.T., Geisling-Sobotka, K., Harrison, J. and Prill, R.J. (1989) Commercial Building Ventilation Rates and Particle Concentrations. ASHRAE Transactions, 95, 422-433.

[24]   Koskinen, O.M., Husman T.M., Hyvarinen, A.M., Reponen, T.A. and Nevalainen, A.I. (1997) Two Moldy Day-Carecenters: A Follow-Up Study of Respiratory Symptoms and Infections. Indoor Air, 7, 262-268.

[25]   Indoor Air Quality Models.

[26]   World Resource Institute, UNEP, UNDP, World Bank (1998-1999) World Resources: A Guide to the Global Environment. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


[28]   Park, K. (2009) Park’s Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 20th Editon, M/s Banarasidas Bhanot Publishers, Jabalpur, 639.

[29]   Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in New Homes (2009) Peer Collaborative Report. California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board, CEC-500-2009-085.

[30]   Cheng, K.C., Acevedo-Bolton, V., Jiang, R.T., Klepeis, N.E., Ott, W.R., Fringer, O.B. and Hildemann, L.M. (2011) Modeling Exposure Close to Air Pollution Sources in Naturally Ventilated Residences: Association of Turbulent Diffusion Coefficient with Air Change Rate. Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 4016-4022.

[31]   Breen, M.S., Schultz, B.D., Sohn, M.D., Long, T., Langstaff, J., Williams, R., Isaacs, K., Meng, Q.Y., Stallings, C. and Smith, L. (2013) A Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.

[32]   Mishra, V., Dai, X., Smith, K.R. and Mika, L. (2004) Maternal Exposure to Biomass Smoke and Reduced Birth Weight in Zimbabwe. Annals of Epidemiology, 14, 740-747.

[33]   James, M.T., Joanne, K., Ravilla, D.T., Christian, L.C., Sheeladevi, S., Elizabeth, L.Y. and Rahmathullah, L. (2009) Exposure to Indoor Biomass Fuel and Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Adverse Reproductive Outcomes, Mortality, Respiratory Morbidity and Growth among Newborn Infants in South India. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, 13511363.

[34]   Boy, E., Bruce, N.G. and Delgado, H. (2002) Birth Weight and Exposure to Kitchen Wood Smoke during Pregnancy in Rural Guatemala. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110, 109-114.