OJI  Vol.4 No.2 , June 2014
An Overview of Leptin and the Th1/Th2 Balance
Abstract: Adipocytes produce hormones and adipokines, among others leptin, with metabolic and inflammatory responses. The role of leptin involves different subsets of the immune system. Low levels of serum leptin concentrations are associated with bacterial infections and produce susceptibility to allergic diseases and type Th2 autoimmune diseases. High levels of leptin are associated with Th1 autoimmune diseases via inflammatory responses. Leptin resistance, that happens in obesity, is characterized by the presence of high levels of serum leptin itself accompanied by a clinical situation of a Th2 response. There is a relationship between obesity, leptin resistance, altered immunity and sex hormones. Serum leptin concentration (Th1 response) in women is higher than in men maybe to achieve the balance Th1/Th2 because of the high level of estrogenic hormones (Th2 response) in women.
Cite this paper: Brito Díaz, B. , Marcelino Rodríguez, I. , Almeida González, D. , Rodríguez Pérez, MC. and Cabrera de León, A. (2014) An Overview of Leptin and the Th1/Th2 Balance. Open Journal of Immunology, 4, 42-50. doi: 10.4236/oji.2014.42006.

[1]   Félix-Redondo, F.J., Grau, M., Baena-Díez, J.M., Dégano, I.R., de León, A.C., Guembe, M.J., et al. (2013) Prevalence of Obesity and Associated Cardiovascular Risk: The DARIOS Study. BMC Public Health, 13, 542.

[2]   Leal Vde, O. and Mafra, D. (2013) Adipokines in Obesity. Clinica Chimica Acta, 419, 87-94.

[3]   Samad, F. and Ruf, W. (2013) Inflammation, Obesity, and Thrombosis. Blood, 122, 3415-3422.

[4]   Colosia, A.D., Palencia, R. and Khan, S. (2013) Prevalence of Hypertension and Obesity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Observational Studies: A Systematic Literature Review. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 6, 327-338.

[5]   Lee, E.B. and Mattson, M.P. (2013) The Neuropathology of Obesity: Insights from Human Disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 127, 3-28.

[6]   De Pergola, G. and Silvestris, F. (2013) Obesity as a Major Risk Factor for Cancer. Journal of Obesity, 2013, 1-11.

[7]   Olshansky, S.J., Passaro, D.J., Hershow, R.C., Layden, J., Carnes, B.A., Brody, J., et al. (2005) A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United. New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 1138-1145.

[8]   Unger, R.H., Clark, G.O., Scherer, P.E. and Orci, L. (2010) Lipid Homeostasis, Lipotoxicity and the Metabolic Syndrome. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1801, 209-214.

[9]   Wozniak, S.E., Gee, L.L., Wachtel, M.S. and Frezza, E.E. (2009) Adipose Tissue: The New Endocrine Organ? A Review Article. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 54, 1847-1856.

[10]   Itoh, M., Suganami, T., Hachiya, R. and Ogawa, Y. (2011) Adipose Tissue Remodeling as Homeostatic Inflammation. International Journal of Inflammation, 2011, 1-8.

[11]   Wisse, B.E. (2004) The Inflammatory Syndrome: The Role of Adipose Tissue Cytokines in Metabolic Disorders Linked to Obesity. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 15, 2792-2800.

[12]   Myers, M.G. Jr., Leibel, R.L., Seeley, R.J. and Schwartz, M.W. (2010) Obesity and Leptin Resistance: Distinguishing Cause from Effect. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 21, 643-651.

[13]   Farooqi, I.S., Matarese, G., Lord, G.M., Keogh, J.M., Lawrence, E., Agwu, C., et al. (2002) Beneficial Effects of Leptin on Obesity, T Cell Hyporesponsiveness, and Neuroendocrine/Metabolic Dysfunction of Human Congenital Leptin Deficiency. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 110, 1093-1103.

[14]   Banks, W.A., Coon, A.B., Robinson, S.M., Moinuddin, A., Shultz, J.M., Nakaoke, R., et al. (2004) Triglycerides Induce Leptin Resistance at the Blood-Brain Barrier. Diabetes, 53, 1253-1258.

[15]   Lavin D.N., Joesting J.J. and Chiu G.S. (2011) Fasting Induces an Anti-Inflammatory Effect on the Neuroimmune System Which a High-Fat Diet Prevents. Obesity (Silver Spring), 19, 1586-1594.

[16]   Wunderlich, C.M., Hovelmeyer, N. and Wunderlich, F.T. (2013) Mechanisms of Chronic JAK-STAT3-SOCS3 Signa- ling in Obesity. JAK-STAT, 2, Article ID: e23878.

[17]   Fujikawa, T., Chuang, J.C., Sakata, I., Ramadori, G. and Coppari, R. (2010) Leptin Therapy Improves Insulin-Deficient Type 1 Diabetes by CNS-Dependent Mechanisms in Mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 17391-17396.

[18]   Villarino, A.V., Huang, E. and Hunter, C.A. (2004) Understanding the Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of IL-27. Journal of Immunology, 173, 715-720.

[19]   Leon-Cabrera, S., Solís-Lozano, L., Suárez-álvarez, K., González-Chávez, A., Béjar, Y.L., Robles-Díaz, G. and Escobedo, G. (2013) Hyperleptinemia Is Associated with Parameters of Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Dysfunction in Obese Human Beings. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 7, 62.

[20]   Guzmán-Flores, J.M. and López-Briones, S. (2012) Cells of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity. Gaceta médica de México, 148, 381-389.

[21]   Liu, Y., Yu, Y., Matarese, G. and La Cava, A. (2012) Cutting Edge: Fasting-Induced Hypoleptinemia Expands Functional Regulatory T Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Journal of Immunology, 188, 2070-2073.

[22]   Moraes-Vieira, P.M., Larocca, R.A., Bassi, E.J., Peron, J.P., Andrade-Oliveira, V., Wasinski, F., Araujo, R., Thornley, T., Quintana, F.J., Basso, A.S., Strom, T.B. and Camara, N.O. (2013) Leptin Deficiency Impairs Maturation of Dendritic Cells and Enhances Induction of Regulatory T and Th17 Cells. European Journal of Immunology, 44, 194-806.

[23]   Morton, G.J., Cummings, D.E., Baskin, D.G., Barsh, G.S. and Schwartz, M.W. (2006) Central Nervous System Control of Food Intake and Body Weight. Nature, 443, 289-295.

[24]   Batra, A., Okur, B., Glauben, R., Erben, U., Ihbe, J., Stroh, T., Fedke, I., Chang, H.D., Zeitz, M. and Siegmund, B. (2010) Leptin: A Critical Regulator of CD4+ T-Cell Polarization in Vitro and in Vivo. Endocrinology, 151, 56-62.

[25]   Clément, K., Vaisse, C., Lahlou, N., Cabrol, S., Pelloux, V., Cassuto, D., Gourmelen, M., Dina, C., Chambaz, J., Lacorte, J.M., Basdevant, A., Bougnères, P., Lebouc, Y., Froguel, P. and Guy-Grand, B. (1998) A Mutation in the Human Leptin Receptor Gene Causes Obesity and Pituitary Dysfunction. Nature, 392, 398-401.

[26]   Dubern, B. and Clement, K. (2012) Leptin and Leptin Receptor-Related Monogenic Obesity. Biochimie, 94, 2111-2115.

[27]   Lam, Q.L. and Lu, L. (2007) Role of Leptin in Inmunity. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 4, 1-13.

[28]   Cojocaru, M., Cojocaru, I.M., Silosi, I. and Rogoz, S. (2013) Role of Leptin in Autoimmune Diseases. Maedica (Buchar), 8, 68-74.

[29]   Palmer, G. and Gabay, C. (2003) A Role for Leptin in Rheumatic Diseases? Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 62, 913-915.

[30]   Sysi-Aho, M., Ermolov, A., Gopalacharyulu, P.V., et al. (2011) Metabolic Regulation in Progression to Autoimmune Diabetes. PLoS Computational Biology, 7, Article ID: e1002257.

[31]   Falcón, G.J.J., Gazga, U.C., González, T.C. and Nájera, M.O. (2012) Regulación de la inmunidad por la leptina. Revista de Educación Bioquímica, 31, 92-99.

[32]   Speakman, J.R. and Mitchell, S.E. (2011) Caloric Restriction. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 32, 159-221.

[33]   Rogol, A.D. (2010) Sex Steroids, Growth Hormone, Leptin and the Pubertal Growth Spurt. Endocrine Development, 17, 77-85.

[34]   Calder, P.C. (2013) Feeding the Immune System. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 72, 299-309.

[35]   Ren, H., Zhao, H., Wang, T., Yang, Y., Han, Z., Liu, B., Wu, Z.D., Tao, J., Zhou, B., Zhang, L., Yang, R.C. and Han, Z.C. (2006) Leptin Enhances in Vitro Secretion of IgG Antiplatelet Antibodies by Splenocytes and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. Clinical Immunology, 120, 205-211.

[36]   González, D.A., De León, A.C., Rodríguez Pérez, M.C., Coello, S.D., González Hernández, A., Fuentes, R.C., Jaime, A.A. and Diáz, B.B. (2008) Inverse Association between Obesity and Antinuclear Antibodies in Women. Journal of Rheumatology, 35, 2449-2451.

[37]   Al-Harithy, R.N., Al-Doghaither, H. and Abualnaja, K. (2006) Correlation of Leptin and Sex Hormones with Endocrine Changes in Healthy Saudi Women of Different Body Weights. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 26, 110-115.

[38]   González, D.A., Díaz, B.B., del Cristo Rodríguez Péreza, M., Hernández, A.G., Chico, B.N. and de León, A.C. (2010) Sex Hormones and Autoimmunity. Immunology Letters, 133, 6-13.

[39]   Saxena, N.K. and Sharma, D. (2013) Multifaceted Leptin Network: The Molecular Connection between Obesity and Breast Cancer. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, 18, 309-320.