PSYCH  Vol.5 No.8 , June 2014
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Greek Validation on Student Sample

This paper presents the standardization of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in the Greek population. Self-esteem is defined as the positive or negative reflection that the individual has for himself/herself and the belief of being able to cope with the basic challenges of life. The RSES was completed by university students with a mean age of 19. Along with the RSES we administered the Health Locus of Control Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Stress and Personality Self Test and the self-esteem questionnaire (Darviri & Varvogli). The results on the reliability and validity of the RSES were satisfactory as the internal reliability index crombach a was .80 and the RSES had positive statistical significant relationship with the second questionnaire of self-esteem. We also found statistically significant relationships with stress levels, health locus of control and personality types. It seems that when people attribute their good health to others, they have increased self-esteem in relation to people who attributed their good health to themselves. Furthermore our study showed that women have higher levels of self-esteem than men, an opposite outcome to the one of previous validations. The RSES Greek version is a tool that can be used for the measurement of Self-Esteem in the Greek Population.

Cite this paper
Galanou, C. , Galanakis, M. , Alexopoulos, E. & Darviri, C. (2014). Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Greek Validation on Student Sample. Psychology, 5, 819-827. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.58093.
[1]   Abouserie, R. (1994). Sources and Levels of Stress in Relation to Locus of Control and Self-Esteem in University Students. Educational Psychology, 14, 323-330.

[2]   Baumeister, F. (2005). Rethinking Self-Esteem. Why Nonprofits Should Stop Pushing Self-Esteem and Start Endorsing Self-Control. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 2005, 1-9.

[3]   Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1996). Relation of Threatened Egotism to Violence and Aggression: The Dark Side of High Self-Esteem. Psychological Review, 103, 5-33.

[4]   Branden, N. (1969). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Bantam.

[5]   Branden, N. (2001). The Psychology of Self-Esteem: A Revolutionary Approach to Self-Understanding That Launched a New Era in Modern Psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

[6]   Cannon, W. B. (1926). Physiological Regulation of Normal States: Some Tentative Postulates Concerning Biological Homeostatics. Paris: Editions Medicales.

[7]   Carlson, N. R. et al. (2007). The Science of Behaviour. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education.

[8]   Friedman, M., & Roseman, R. (1959). Association of Specific Overt Behaviour Pattern with Blood and Cardiovascular Findings. Journal of the American Medical Association, 169, 1286-1296.

[9]   Gana, K., Alaphilippe, D., & Baillo, D. (2005). Factorial Structure of the French Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among the Elderly. International Journal of Testing, 5, 169-176.

[10]   Greenberger, E., Chen, Ch., Dmitrieva, J., & Farruggia, S. P. (2003). Item-Wording and the Dimensionality of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Do They Matter? Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1241-1254.

[11]   Grossarth-Maticek, R., Eysenck, H. J., & Vetter, H. (1988). Personality Type, Smoking Habit and Their Interaction as Predictors of Cancer and Coronary Heart Disease. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 479-495.

[12]   Hensley, W. E., & Roberts, M. K. (1976). Dimensions of Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale. Psychological Reports, 38, 583-584.

[13]   Hewitt, J. P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 217-224). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[14]   Kliewer, W., & Sandler, I. N. (1992). Locus of Control and Self-Esteemas Moderators of Stressor-Symptom Relations in Children and Adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 393-413.

[15]   Marsh, H. W. (1990). The Structure of Academic Self-Concept: The Marsh/Shavelson Model of Educational Psychology. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 623-636.

[16]   Marsh, H. W. (1996). Positive and Negative Self-Esteem: A Substantively Meaningful Distinction or Artifactors? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 810-819.

[17]   Martín-Albo, J., Niρez, J. L., Navarro, J. G., & Grijalvo, F. (2007) The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Translation and Validation in University Students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10, 458-467.

[18]   Mash, E. J., & Johnston, C. (1983). Parental Perceptions of Child Behavior Problems. Parenting Self-Esteem, and Mothers’ Reported Stress in Younger and Older Hyperactive and Normal Children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 86-99.

[19]   Maslow, A. H. (1987). Motivation and Personality (3rd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

[20]   Miller, D. T., & Ross, M. (1975). Self-Serving Biases in the Attribution of Causality, Factor or Fiction? Psychological Bulletin, 82, 213-225.

[21]   Motl, R. W., & DiStefano, C. (2002). Longitudinal Invariance of Self-Esteem and Methods Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 562-578.

[22]   Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (1975). Development through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.

[23]   Olsen, J. M., Breckler, S. J., & Wiggins, E. C. (2008). Social Psychology Alive. Ontario: Nelson.

[24]   Prezza, M., Trombaccia, F. R., & Armento, L. (1997). La scala dell’autostima di Rosenberg: Traduzione e validazioneitaliana. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 223, 35-44.

[25]   Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[26]   Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, T. G., & Wegner, M. D. (2010). Psychology Study Guide. London: Worth Publishers.

[27]   Smith, E. R., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Social Psychology. New York: Psychology Press.

[28]   Vallieres, E. F., & Vallerand, R. J. (1990). Traduction et validation Canadienne-Francaise se l’echelle de l’estime de soi de Rosenberrg. International Journal of Psychology, 25, 305-316.

[29]   Wang, J., Siegal, H. A., Falck, R. S., & Carlson, R. G. (2001). Factorial Structure of Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale among Crack-Cocaine Drug Users. Structural Equation Modeling, 8, 275-286.

[30]   Willburn, V. R., & Smith, D. E. (2005) Stress Self-Esteem and Suicidal Ideation in Late Adolecents. Adolecence, 40, 33-45.