JBiSE  Vol.7 No.7 , June 2014
Experimental Validation of Subject-Specific Dynamics Model for Predicting Impact Force in Sideways Fall
ABSTRACT
Sideways fall has been identified as the most critical situation for the elderly to develop hip fractures. The impact force onto the greater trochanter is the key factor for predicting fracture risk. For the elderly, the impact force can only be determined by dynamics simulations, and the dynamics model must be first validated by experiments before it can be applied in clinic. In this study, subject-specific whole-body dynamics models constructed from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images of the subjects were validated by controlled and protected fall tests using young volunteers. The validation results suggested that subject-specific dynamics model is much more accurate in predicting impact force induced in sideways fall than conventional non-subject-specific dynamics model. Therefore, subject-specific dynamics model can be applied in clinic to improve the accuracy of assessing hip fracture risk.

Cite this paper
Sarvi, M. , Luo, Y. , Sun, P. and Ouyang, J. (2014) Experimental Validation of Subject-Specific Dynamics Model for Predicting Impact Force in Sideways Fall. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 7, 405-418. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2014.77043.
References
[1]   Cumming, R. and Klineberg, R. (1994) Fall Frequency and Characteristics and the Risk of Hip Fractures. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42, 774-778.

[2]   Cummings, S.R. and Melton, L.J. (2002) Epidemiology and Outcomes of Osteoporotic Fractures. The Lancet, 359, 1761-1767.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08657-9

[3]   Melton, L.J. (1993) Hip Fractures: A Worldwide Problem Today and Tomorrow. Bone, 14, 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/8756-3282(93)90341-7

[4]   Green, C., Molony, D., Fitzpatrick, C. and ORourke, K. (2010) Age-Specific Incidence of Hip Fracture in the Elderly: A Healthy Decline. The Surgeon, 8, 310-313.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surge.2010.05.008

[5]   Fisher, A.A., O’Brien, E.D. and Davis, M.W. (2009) Trends in Hip Fracture Epidemiology in Australia: Possible Impact of Bisphosphonates and Hormone Replacement Therapy. Bone, 45, 246-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2009.04.244

[6]   Cooper, C., Campion, G. and Melton, L.J. (1992) Hip Fractures in the Elderly: A World-Wide Projection. Osteoporos International, 2, 285-259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01623184

[7]   Gullberg, B., Johnell, O. and Kanis, J.A. (1997) World-Wide Projections for Hip Fracture. Osteoporos International, 7, 407-413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/PL00004148

[8]   Huddleston, J.M. and Whitford, K.J. (2001) Medical Care of Elderly Patients With Hip Fractures. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 76, 295-298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/76.3.295

[9]   Van den Kroonenberg, A.J., Hayes, W.C. and McMahon, T.A. (1995) Dynamic Models for Sideways Falls from Standing Height. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 117, 309-318.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2794186

[10]   Laing, A.C. and Robinovitch, S.N. (2010) Characterizing the Effective Stiffness of the Pelvis during Sideways Falls on the Hip. Journal of Biomechanics, 43, 1898-1904.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.03.025

[11]   Kim, K.J. and Ashton Miller, J.A. (2009) Segmental Dynamics of forward Fall Arrests: A System Identification Approach. Clinical Biomechanics, 24, 348-354.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.01.007

[12]   Groen, B.E., Weerdesteyn, V. and Duysens, J. (2008) The Relation between Hip Impact Velocity and Hip Impact Force Differs between Sideways Fall Techniques. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 18, 228-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2007.06.002

[13]   Sabick, M.B., Hay, J.G., Goel, V.K. and Banks, S.A. (1999) Active Responses Decrease Impact Forces at the Hip and Shoulder in Falls to the Side. Journal of Biomechanics, 32, 993-998.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00079-2

[14]   Groen, B.E., Weerdesteyn, V. and Duysens, J. (2007) Martial Arts Fall Techniques Decrease the Impact Forces at the Hip during Sideways Falling. Journal of Biomechanics, 40, 458-462.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.12.014

[15]   Van der Zijden, A.M., Groen, B.E., Tanck, E., Nienhuis, B., Verdonschot, N. and Weerdesteyn, V. (2012) Can Martial arts Techniques Reduce Fall Severity? An in Vivo Study of Femoral Loading Configurations in Sideways Falls. Journal of Biomechanics, 45, 1650-1655.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.03.024

[16]   Durkin, J.L., Dowling, J.J. and Andrews, D.M. (2002) The Measurement of Body Segment Inertial Parameters Using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Journal of Biomechanics, 35, 1575-1580.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00227-0

[17]   Nasiri Sarvi, M. and Luo, Y. (2013) Estimation of Body Segment Masses Using Whole-Body DXA Image. Proceedings of the 24th CANCAM, Saskatoon, 2-6 June 2013.

[18]   Wicke, J., Dumas, G.A. and Costigan, P.A. (2008) Trunk Density Profile Estimates from Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry. Journal of Biomechanics, 41, 861-867.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.10.022

[19]   Van den Kroonenberg, A.J., Hayes, W.C. and McMahon, T.A. (1996) Hip Impact Velocities and Body Configurations for Voluntary Falls from Standing Height. Journal of Biomechanics, 29, 807-811.

[20]   Burkhart, T.A., Arthurs, K.L. and Andrews, D.M. (2009) Manual Segmentation of DXA Scan Images Results in Reliable Upper and Lower Extremity Soft and Rigid Tissue Mass Estimates. Journal of Biomechanics, 42, 1138-1142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.02.017

 
 
Top