AAR  Vol.3 No.2 , May 2014
Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease: Longitudinal Data from Brazilian Elderly
ABSTRACT

Research on cognitive aging is becoming increasingly common because aging is a global phenomenon and brings with it many challenges, for example, the increased incidence of dementias such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Even if the cognitive decline in AD is apparently linear, impairment of autonomy in activities of daily living does not follow the same pattern. Objectives: To monitor and evaluate the cognitive aspects of elderly diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Methodological procedures: This research was conducted from January 2006 to July 2013 at the Clinic of Geriatrics and Gerontology. Longitudinal study of 51 elderly patients aged 60 years, of both sexes who received a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease by DSM-IV (APA, 1994) and NINDS-ADRDA (McKhann et al., 2011). Results: From the results obtained in the present study, we observed that the participants had a decline in cognitive function from the first to the second assessment, even with drug treatment.


Cite this paper
Bartholomeu, D. , Cecato, J. , Martinelli, J. and Montiel, J. (2014) Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease: Longitudinal Data from Brazilian Elderly. Advances in Aging Research, 3, 172-176. doi: 10.4236/aar.2014.32025.
References
[1]   Camarano, A.A. (2002) Envelhecimento da população brasileira: Uma contribuição demográfica. In: Freitas, E.V., Py, L., Neri, A.L., Cançado, F.A.X., Gorzoni, M.L. and Rocha, S.M., Eds., Organizadores. Tratado de Geriatria e Gerontologia, Guanabara Koogan, Rio de Janeiro, 58-71.

[2]   Frota, N.A.F., Nitrini, R., Damasceno, B.P., Forlenza, O.V., Dias-Tosta, E., Da Silva, A.B., et al. (2011) Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease: Recommendations of the Scientific Departamento of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Dementia e Neuropsychologia, 5, 146-152.

[3]   Zidan, M., Arcoverde, C., Araújo, N.B., Vasques, P., Rios, A., Laks, J., et al. (2012) Motor and Functional Changes in Different Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 39, 161-165.

[4]   Luzardo, A.R. and Waldman, B.F. (2004) Atenção ao familiar cuidador do idoso com Doença de Alzheimer. Acta Scientiarum. Health Sciences, 26,135-145.

[5]   Niegovan, V., Hing, M.M., Mitchell, S.L. and Molnar, F.J. (2001) The Hierarchy of Functional Loss Associated with Cognitive Decline in Older Persons. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences, 56, 638-643.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.10.M638

[6]   Suh, S.W., Jensen, K.B., Jensen, M.S., et al. (2000) Histochemically-Reactive Zinc in Amyloid Plaques, Angiopathy, and Degenerating Neurons of Alzheimer’s Diseased Brains. Brain Research, 852, 74-278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-8993(99)02096-X

[7]   Moreira, P.I., Santos, M.I. and Oliveira, C.R. (2007) Alzheimer’s Disease: A Lesson from Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 9, 1621-1630.

[8]   Ainslie, N. and Murden, R. (1993) Effect of Education on the Clock Drawing Dementia Screen in Nom-Demented Elderly Persons. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 41, 249-252.

[9]   American Psychiatry Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Edition, Washington DC.

[10]   Mckhann, G.M., Knopman, D.S., Chertkow, H., et al. (2011) The Diagnosis of Dementia Due to Alzheimer’s Disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association Workgroups on Diagnostic Guidelines for Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimers Dement, 7, 263-269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.005

[11]   Roth, M., Tym, E., Mountjoy, C.Q., Huppert, F.A., et al. (1986) CAMDEX. A Standardised Instrument for the Diagnosis of Mental Disorder in the Elderly with Special Reference to the Early Detection of Dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 698-709.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.149.6.698

[12]   Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E. and Mchugh, P.R. (1975) Mini-Mental State: A Practical Method for Grading the Cognitive State of Patients for the Clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189-198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6

[13]   Brucki, S.M.D., Nitrini, R., Caramelli, P., Bertolucci, P.H.F. and Kamoto, I. (2003) Sugestões para o Uso do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental no Brasil. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 61, 777-781.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X2003000500014

[14]   Mendez, M.F., Ala, T. and Underwood, K. (1992) Development of Scoring Criteria for the Clock Drawing Task in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40, 1095-1099.

[15]   Shulman, K.I., Gold, D.P., Cohen, C.A. and Zucchero, C.A. (1993) Clock-Drawing and Dementia in the Community: A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 487-496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.930080606

[16]   Pfeffer, R.I., Kurosaki, T.T., Harrah, C.H., Chance, J.M., et al. (1982) Measurement of Functional Activities in Older Adults in the Community. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 323-329.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/37.3.323

[17]   Yesavage, J.A., Brink, T.L., Rose, T.L., Lum, O., et al. (1983) Development and Validation of a Geriatric Depression Screening Scale: A Preliminary Report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 37-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4

[18]   Anttila, T., Helkala, E.L., Kivipelto, M., Hallikainen, M., Alhainen, K. and Heinonen, H. (2002) Midlife Income, Occupation, APOE Status, and Dementia: A Populationbased Study. Neurology, 59, 887-893.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.59.6.887

[19]   Lebrão, M.L. and Oliveira, Y.A. (2003) O Projeto Sabe (Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento) No Município de São Paulo. USP, São Paulo.

[20]   Kempler, D., Teng, E.L., Dick, M., Taussig, I.M. and Davis, D.S. (1998) The Effects of Age, Education, and Ethnicity on Verbal Fluency. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 531-538.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617798466013

[21]   Ardila, A., Ostrosky-Sollis, F., Rosselli, M. and Gomez, C. (2000) Age-Related Cognitive Decline during Normal Aging: The Complex Effect of Education. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 15, 495-513.

[22]   Habib, R., Nyberg, L. and Nilsson, L. (2007) Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors Contributing to the Longitudinal Identification of Successful Older Adults in the Betula Study. Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 14, 257-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13825580600582412

[23]   Akbaraly, T.N., Singh-Manoux, A., Marmot, M. and Brunner, E.J. (2009) Education Attenuates the Association between Dietary Patterns and Cognition. Dementia Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 27, 147-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000199235

[24]   Wajman, J.R. and Bertolucci, P.H.F. (2010) Intellectual Demand and Formal Education as Cognitive Protection Factors in Alzheimer’s Disease. Dementia e Neuropsychologia, 4, 320-324.

[25]   Aprahamian, I., Martinelli, J.E. and Yassuda, M.S. (2008) Doença de Alzheimer em idosos com baixa escolaridade: O teste do Desenho do Relógio pode ser útil no rastreio cognitivo? Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina, 6, 130-134.

[26]   Fernández-Calvo, B., Rodríguez-Pérez, R., Contador, I., Rubio-Santorum, A. and Ramos, F. (2011) Eficacia del entrenamiento cognitivo basado en nuevas tecnologias en pacientes con demencia tipo Alzheimer. Psicothema, 23, 44-50.

 
 
Top