ABSTRACT In the present study, the selection of an etchant for a particular crystal was purely made on empirical basis. The gel grown barium oxalate crystals were etched by HCl, HNO3, BaCl2, NH4Cl, and NH4Cl-HCl solutions. Micro-topographical studies have been made and it was found that elongated triangular etch pits and pits within pits were formed. Rectangular growth layers in the form of staircase and leaf like dendrite pattern were seen. Kinetics of etching was studied. Quantitative estimation of dissolved crystals in etchants was used for the determination of activation energy of reaction and pre-exponential factor with the help of Arrhenius equation.
Cite this paper
nullP. Dalal and K. Saraf, "Etching and Micro-Topographical Studies of Barium Oxalate Crystals Grown in Agar Gel," Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology, Vol. 1 No. 1, 2011, pp. 8-12. doi: 10.4236/jcpt.2011.11002.
 H. K. Henisch, “Crystal Growth in Gels”, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, 1970.
 S. K. Arora, “Advances in Gel Growth: A Review,” Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1981, pp. 345-378.
 P. V. Dalal and K. B. Saraf, “Growth and Study of Barium Oxalate Single Crystals in Agar Gel,” Bulletin of Material Science, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2006, pp. 421-425. doi:10.1007/BF02914071
 N. V. Prasad, G. Prasad, T. Bhimasankaram, S. V. Suryanarayana and G. S. Kumar, “Dielectric Properties of Cobalt Doped Cadmium Oxalate Crystals,” Bulletin of Material Science, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1996, pp. 639-643. doi:10.1007/BF02745154
 J. Bera and D. Sarkar, “Formation of BaTiO5 from Barium Oxalate and TiO2,” Journal of Electroceramics, Vol. 11, 2003, pp. 131-137. doi:10.1023/B:JECR.0000026366.17280.0d
 P. Sharma and H. S. Virk, “Fabrication of Nanoparticles of Barium Carbonate/Oxalate Using Reverse Micelle Technique,” The Open Surface Science Journal, Vol. 1, 2009, pp. 34-39. doi:10.2174/1876531900901010034
 R. A. Kimel, V. Ganine and J. H. Adair, “Double Injection Synthesis and Dispersion of Submicrometer Barium Titanyl Oxalate Tetrahydrate,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 84, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1172-1174. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.2001.tb00809.x.
 R. Gevers, S. Amelinckx and W. Dekeyser, “Interfero Metric Study of Etchpits,” Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 39, No. 19, 1952, pp. 448-449. doi:10.1007/BF00589283
 R. Gevers, “Etch-Pits and Dislocations,” Nature, Vol. 171, No. 4343, 1953, pp. 171-172. doi:10.1038/171171a0
 F. H. Horn, “Screw Dislocations, Etch Figures, and Holes,” Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 43, 1952, pp. 1210-1213.
 A. R. Patel and C. C. Desai, “Etching of Calcium Fluoride Cleavages,” Acta Crystallographica, Vol. 18, 1965, pp. 373-374. doi:10.1107/S0365110X65000841
 A. D. Honess, “The Nature, Origin, and Interpretation of the Etch Figures on Crystals,” Wiley, New York, 1927.
 H. A. Miers, “Minerology,” The Macmillan Company, London, 1902.
 V. HariBabu and U. V. Subba-Rao, “Etch Pit Studies in Alkali Halide Crystals,” Progress in Crystal growth and Characterization, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1984, pp. 261-326.
 A. R. Patel and C. C. Desai, “Kinetics of the Etching of Dislocation in Doped Calcium Fluoride Single Crystals,” Kinetics of the Etching of Dislocation in Doped Calcium Fluoride Single Crystals, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1972, pp. 386-389.
 K. V. Bangera and P. Mohanrao, “Surface topographical studies of prism faces of barium copper oxalate single crystals,” Bulletin of Material Science, Vol. 16, No. 4, 1993, pp. 256-260.
 S. K. Arora and T. Abraham, “Etching and Dissolution Mechanism of Cadmium Oxalate Trihydrate Crystals,” Crystal Research and Crystal Technology, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1982, pp. 489-495. doi:10.1002/crat.2170170416
 S. M. Dharmaprakash and P. Mohanrao, “Studies on Etching of Gel-Grown Barium Oxalate Dihydrate Crystals,” Bulletin of Material Science, Vol. 8, No. 4, October 1986, pp. 519-525. doi:10.1007/BF02744118
 P. V. Dalal, K. B. Saraf and S. Shah, “Growth of Barium Oxalate Crystals in Agar-Agar Gel and Their Characterization,” Crystal Research and Crystal Technology, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2009, pp. 36-42. doi:10.1002/crat.200800221
 D. S. Bhavsar and K. B. Saraf, “Morphology of PbI2 Crystals Grown by Gel Method,” Crystal Research and Crystal Technology, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2002, pp. 51-55. doi:10.1002/1521-4079(200202)37:1<51::AID-CRAT51>3.0.CO;2-N
 A. R. Patel and S. M. Patel, “Electron Optical Studies of Etch Patterns on Calcium Fluoride,” Z-Krist, Vol. 126, 1968, pp. 214-221. doi:10.1524/zkri.1968.126.1-3.214
 K. J. Laidler and M. C. King, “The Development of Transition Theory,” The Journal of physical chemistry, Vol. 83, 1983, pp. 2657-2664. doi:10.1021/j100238a002
 H. C. Gatos, In: R. Ueda and J. B. Mullin, Eds. Crystal Growth and Characterization, North Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam, 1975.
 M. B. Abramson and C. V. King, “Rate of Solution of Iron in Acids,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 61, 1939, pp. 2290-2295. doi:10.1021/ja01878a007
 B. Tuck, “The Chemical Etching of Semiconductors,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1975, pp. 321-339. doi:10.1007/BF00540357