Metric Expansion of Space Described by Gravity Based on Electromagnetic Processes

ABSTRACT

The present study describes the metric expansion of space based on a novel understanding of gravity and its electromagnetic processes. A singularity in the universe emits electromagnetic energy, which is absorbed by atoms and re-emitted to other atoms. This results in mutual force of attraction, *i.e.*gravity. We assume that the distance *R* towards the singularity is constant and*r* is the distance between two bodies. Then the gravitational force decreases with the decrease of the re-emitted energy, *i.e.* as 1/*r*^{2}, and in line with Newtonian gravity and General Relativity. However, the universe orbits the singularity and hence *R* varies. *R* increases when a certain part of space travels from the singularity, and whereby the energy re-emitted by atoms decreases as 1/*r*^{2}*R*^{2}. Consequently, the gravitational force between bodies decreases as 1/*r*^{2}*R*^{2}, resulting in increasing distance between bodies, *i.e.*metric expansion of space. A theoretical model is presented. The theoretical model describes the mechanisms which results in gravity and expanding space. The study also displays how the electromagnetic characteristics of the singularity and gravity waves and the mechanism creating gravity are measured.

Cite this paper

Giertz, H. (2014) Metric Expansion of Space Described by Gravity Based on Electromagnetic Processes.*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, **4**, 353-358. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.42029.

Giertz, H. (2014) Metric Expansion of Space Described by Gravity Based on Electromagnetic Processes.

References

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[2] Giertz, H.W. (2013) Gravity Caused by TEM Waves Operating on Dipoles in Atoms. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3, 39-50.

[3] Giertz, H.W. (2010) Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Energy in the Air. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 72, 767-773.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2010.03.022

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04803

[10] Bunn, E.F. and Hogg, D.W. (2009) The Kinematic Origin of the Cosmological Redshift. American Journal of Physics, 77, 688-694. http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.3129103

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[15] Ostrovsky, L.A. and Potapov, A.I. (2002) Modulated Waves: Theory and Application. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

[16] Terras, A. (1999) Fourier Analysis on Finite Groups And Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[17] Burgess, C. and Moore, G. (2007) The Standard Model: A Primer. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[18] Peebles, P.J.E. and Ratra, B. (2003) The Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy. Reviews of Modern Physics, 75, 559-606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559

[19] Giertz, H.W. (2013) Photons Are EM Energy Superpositioned on TEM Waves. Open Journal of Microphysics, 3, 71-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojm.2013.33013

[20] Giertz, H.W. (2014) Inertial and Gravitational Mass Described by Their Electromagnetic Processes. Open Journal of Microphysics, 2, 7-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojm.2014.42002

[21] Giertz, H.W. (2014) Gravitational Lensing Described by Its Electromagnetic Processes. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijaa.2014.41024

[1] Giertz, H.W. (2013) Atoms Absorb Low Frequency Electromagnetic Energy. Open Journal of Microphysics, 3, 115-120.

[2] Giertz, H.W. (2013) Gravity Caused by TEM Waves Operating on Dipoles in Atoms. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3, 39-50.

[3] Giertz, H.W. (2010) Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Energy in the Air. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 72, 767-773.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2010.03.022

[4] Misner, C.W., Thorne, K.S. and Wheeler, J.A. (1973) Gravitation. W. H. Wheeler, San Fransisco.

[5] Logsdon, T. (1998) Orbital Mechanics: Theory and Applications. John Willey & Sons, Hoboken.

[6] D’Eliseo, M.M. (2009) The Gravitational Ellipse. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 50, 022901-022910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3078419

[7] D’Eliseo, M.M. (2007) The First-Order Orbital Equation. American Journal of Physics, 75, 352-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.2432126

[8] NASA (2013) Planck Mission Brings Universe into Sharp Focus.

[9] Bennet, C.L. (2006) Cosmology from Start to Finish. Nature, 440, 1126-1131.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04803

[10] Bunn, E.F. and Hogg, D.W. (2009) The Kinematic Origin of the Cosmological Redshift. American Journal of Physics, 77, 688-694. http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.3129103

[11] Melrose, D.B. and McPhedran, R.C. (1991) Electromagnetic Processes in Dispersive Media. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511600036

[12] Bleaney, B.I. and Bleaney, B. (1965) Electricity and Magnetism. Oxford University Press, Amen House, London.

[13] Alonso, M. and Finn, E.J. (1968) Fundamental University Physics Volume III: Quantum and Statistical Physics, Addison-Wesley.

[14] Serway, R.A. and Jewett, J.W. (2005) Principles of Physics. 4th Edition, Cengage Learning, Stamford.

[15] Ostrovsky, L.A. and Potapov, A.I. (2002) Modulated Waves: Theory and Application. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

[16] Terras, A. (1999) Fourier Analysis on Finite Groups And Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[17] Burgess, C. and Moore, G. (2007) The Standard Model: A Primer. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[18] Peebles, P.J.E. and Ratra, B. (2003) The Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy. Reviews of Modern Physics, 75, 559-606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.75.559

[19] Giertz, H.W. (2013) Photons Are EM Energy Superpositioned on TEM Waves. Open Journal of Microphysics, 3, 71-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojm.2013.33013

[20] Giertz, H.W. (2014) Inertial and Gravitational Mass Described by Their Electromagnetic Processes. Open Journal of Microphysics, 2, 7-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojm.2014.42002

[21] Giertz, H.W. (2014) Gravitational Lensing Described by Its Electromagnetic Processes. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ijaa.2014.41024