OJE  Vol.4 No.7 , May 2014
Microhabitat Use and Population Structure of a Chinese Kissing Loach, Leptobotia tchangi, in the North Tiaoxi River, China
Abstract: Fundamental ecological information on the Chinese kissing loach (Leptobotia tchangi) was collected in the North Tiaoxi River, China, in September 2010. The length-frequency distribution calculated using FiSAT software showed the population structure of this kissing loach could be classified into four age groups suggesting that the life span of the loach should be 3 - 4 years. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the density of this kissing loach was significantly and positively correlated with water velocity, while the body size was significantly and positively correlated with river bed pebble size. It suggested that water velocity and variation of pebble size play important roles in the full life history of this kissing loach. Thus, maintenance of the rapid current and variety of substrate are essential for the conservation of this species under the present conditions in the river, which also can support river restoration being in harmony with survival of this kissing loach.
Cite this paper: Huang, L. , Li, J. , Kano, Y. , Sato, T. , Kitamura, J. , Shimatani, Y. and Wu, Z. (2014) Microhabitat Use and Population Structure of a Chinese Kissing Loach, Leptobotia tchangi, in the North Tiaoxi River, China. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 337-345. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.47031.

[1]   Nalbant, T.T. (2002) Sixty Million Years of Evolution. Part One: Family Botiidae (Pisces: Ostariophysi: Cobitoidea). Travaux du Muséum National d’ Histoire Naturelle “Grigore Antipa”, 44, 309-333.

[2]   Abe, T., Kobayashi, I., Kon, M. and Sakamoto, T. (2007) Spawning Behavior of the Kissing Loach (Leptobotia curta) in Temporary Waters. Zoological Science, 24, 850-853.

[3]   Abe, T., Kobayashi, I., Kon, M. and Sakamoto, T. (2007) Spawning of the Kissing Loach (Leptobotia curta) Is Limited to Periods Following the Formation of Temporary Waters. Zoological Science, 24, 922-926.

[4]   Watanabe, K., Abe, T. and Iwata, A. (2009) Phylogenetic Position and Generic Status of the Japanese Botiid Loach. Ichthyological Research, 56, 421-425.

[5]   Yuan, Y., Yang, H., Gong, S. and Liang, Y. (2010) Threatened Fishes of the World: Leptobotia elongata Bleeker, 1870 (Bottiinae). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 87, 295-296.

[6]   Yue, P. and Chen, Y. (1998) China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Pisces. National Environmental Protection Agency, Endangered Species Scientific Commission, Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese with English Summary)

[7]   Liang, Y., Hu, X., Yu, C., Huang, D. and Chang, J. (2004) Postembryonic Development and Growth of Larval and Juvenile Elongate Loach Leptobotia elongata (Bleeker). Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 28, 96-100. (in Chinese with English Summary)

[8]   Tang, Q., Liu, H., Mayden, R. and Xiong, B. (2006) Comparison of Evolutionary Rates in the Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome b Gene and Control Region and Their Implications for Phylogeny of the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 39, 347-357.

[9]   Yin, J. (2006) The Development of Gonads and Germ Cells in Leptobotia elongata Bleeker (Thesis). School of Life Science, Southwest University, Chongqing. (in Chinese with English Summary)

[10]   Watanabe, K., Takeshima, H., Iwata, A., Abe, T., Uehara, K., Kakioka, R., Kihira, D. and Nishida, M. (2008) Isolation and Characterization of 39 Microsatellite Loci in the Endangered Japanese Loach Leptobotia curta. Molecular Ecology Resources, 8, 145-148.

[11]   Chen, Y. and Chen, Y. (2005) Secondary Sexual Characters, Pigmentary Zones of Gambetta and Taxonomical Revision the Genus Cobitis from China (Pisces, Cobitidae, Cobitinae). Acta Zootaxon Sinica, 30, 647-658. (in Chinese with English Summary)

[12]   Chen, J. (1980) A Study on the Classification of Fishes in the Botiinae in China. Zoological Research, 1, 3-25. (in Chinese with English Summary)

[13]   Copp, G.H. and Vilizzi, L. (2004) Spatial and Ontogenetic Variability in the Microhabitat Use of Stream-Dwelling Spined Loach (Cobitis taenia) and Stone Loach (Barbatula barbatula). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 20, 440-451.

[14]   Pekárik, L., Kosco, J. and Svátora, M. (2012) Reference Conditions for Fish Microhabitat Use in Foothill Streams: A Case Study on Undisrupted Carpathian Streams. River Research and Applications, 28, 369-376.

[15]   Yu, S. and Lee, T. (2002) Habitat Preference of the Stream Fish, Sinogastromyzon puliensis (Homalopteridae). Zoological Studies, 41, 183-187.

[16]   Devictor, V., Clavel, J., Julliard, R., Lavergne, S., Mouillot, D., Thuiller, W., Venail, P., Villéger, S. and Mouquet, N. (2010) Defining and Measuring Ecological Specialization. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 15-25.

[17]   Smith, E.P. (1982) Niche Breadth, Resource Availability, and Inference. Ecology, 63, 1775-1681.

[18]   Washitani, I. and Yahara, T. (1996) An Introduction to Conservation Biology: From Gene to Landscape. Bun Ichi, Tokyo. (in Japanese with English Summary)

[19]   Li, J., Huang, L., Zou, L., Kano, Y., Sato, T. and Yahara, T. (2012) Spatial and Temporal Variation of Fish Assemblages and Their Association to Habitat Variables in a Mountain Stream of North Tiaoxi River, China. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 93, 403-417.

[20]   Li, J., Huang, L., Sato, T., Zou, L., Jiang, K., Yahara, T. and Kano, Y. (2013) Distribution Pattern, Threats and Conservation of Fish Biodiversity in the East Tiaoxi, China. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 96, 519-533.

[21]   Sato, T., Kano, Y., Huang, L., Li, J. and Shimatani, Y. (2010) Assessment of River Environment in the East Tiaoxi Basin, China Using GPS-Logger, Google Earth and Landsat Images. Proceedings of River Technology, 16, 47-52. (in Japanese with English Summary)

[22]   Chen, G., Hu, C., Cheng, X. and Wang, C. (2009) Analytic Study on Enhancement of Flood Control Capacity and Channel Improvement for Dongtiaoxi River. Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, 40, 53-56. (in Chinese with English Summary)

[23]   Simonson, T.D. and Lyons, J. (1995) Comparison of Catch per Effort and Removal Procedures for Sampling Stream Fish Assemblages. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 15, 419-427.<0419:COCPEA>2.3.CO;2

[24]   Bateman, D.S., Gresswell, R.E. and Torgersen, C.E. (2005) Evaluating Single-Pass Catch as a Tool for Identifying Spatial Pattern in Fish Distribution. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 20, 335-345.

[25]   Humpl, M. and Lusk, S. (2006) Effect of Multiple Electro-Fishing on Determining the Structure of Fish Communities in Small Streams. Folia Zoology, 55, 315-322.

[26]   Reid, S.M., Yunker, G. and Jones, N.E. (2009) Evaluation of Single-Pass Backpack Electric Fishing for Stream Fish Community Monitoring. Fisheries Management Ecology, 16, 1-9.

[27]   Bevenger, G.S. and King, R.M. (1995) A Pebble Count Procedure for Assessing Watershed Cumulative Effects. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Res Pap RM-RP-319, 1-17.

[28]   Harrelson, C.C., Rawlins, C.L. and Potyondy, J.P. (1994) Stream Channel Reference Sites: An Illustrated Guide to Field Technique. US Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins.

[29]   Wolman, M.G. (1954) A Method of Sampling Coarse River-Bed Material. Transactions—American Geophysical Union, 35, 951-956.

[30]   Amin, S., Zafar, M.N. and Halim, A. (2008) Age, Growth, Mortality and Population Structure of the Oyster, Crassostrea madrasensis, in the Moheskhali Channel (Southeastern Coast of Bangladesh). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 24, 18-25.

[31]   Azevedo, J.M.N. and Simas, A.M.V. (2000) Age and Growth, Reproduction and Diet of a Sublittoral Population of the Rock Goby Gobius paganellus (Teleostei, Gobiidae). Hydrobiogia, 400, 129-135.

[32]   Onikura, N., Nakajima, J., Kouno, H., Sugimoto, Y. and Kaneto, J. (2009) Habitat Use in Irrigation Channels by the Golden Venus Chub (Hemigrammocypris rasborella) at Different Growth Stages. Zoological Science, 26, 375-381.

[33]   Gayanilo, F.C., Sparre, P. and Pauly, D. (2005) FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tools II. Revised Version. User’s Guide. Worldfish Center, Rome.

[34]   Conover, D.O. (1992) Seasonality and the Scheduling of Life-History at Different Latitudes. Journal of Fish Biology, 41, 161-178.

[35]   Matthews, W.J. (1998) Patterns in Freshwater Fish Ecology. Springer, New York.

[36]   Iwata, A. (2006) Significance of Paddy Field Agriculture for the Existence of the Kissing Loach (Leptobotia curta). Japanese Journal of Conservation Ecology, 11, 133-141. (in Japanese with English Summary)

[37]   Slavík, O., Mattas, D., Jirinec, P., Bartos, L. and Rebec, J. (2000) Substratum Selection by Different Sizes of Spined Loach Cobitis sp. Folia Zoology, 49, 167-172.

[38]   Yu, S. and Peters, E.J. (1997) Use of Froude Numbers to Determine Habitat Selection by Fishes. Rivers, 6, 10-18.

[39]   Watkins, M.S., Doherty, S. and Copp, G.H. (1997) Microhabitat Use by 0+ and Older Fishes in a Small English Chalk Stream. Journal of Fish Biology, 50, 1010-1024.

[40]   Voos, K.A. and Lifton, W.S. (1988) Development of a Bivariate Depth and Velocity Suitability Function for Dolly varden (Salvelinus malma) Juveniles. In: Bovee, K.D. and Zuboy, J.R., Eds., Proceedings of a Workshop on the Development and Evaluation of Habitat Suitability Criteria, Fort Collins, 8-12 December 1986, Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report, 88, 307-319.

[41]   Bond, N.R. and Lake, P.S. (2003) Characterising Fish-Habitat Associations in Streams as the First Step in Ecological Restoration. Austral Ecology, 28, 611-621.