JWARP  Vol.6 No.7 , May 2014
Tracing Water Flow and Colloidal Particles Transfer in an Unsaturated Soil
ABSTRACT

In recent years, many studies have been carried out on colloidal particle transfer in the unsaturated zone because they can be a risk to the environment either directly or as a vector of pollutants. A study was conducted on the influence of porous media structure in unsaturated conditions on colloidal particle transport. Three granular materials were set up in columns to replicate a fluvio-glacial soil from the unsaturated zone in the Lyon area (France). It is a sand, a bimodal mixture in equal proportion by weight of sand and gravel, and a fraction of bimodal mixture. Nanoparticles of silica (SiO2-Au-FluoNPs), having a hydrodynamic diameter between 50 and 60 nm, labeled by organic fluorescent molecules were used to simulate the transport of colloidal particles. A nonreactive tracer, bromide ion (Br-) at a concentration of C0,s = 10-2 M was used to determine the hydrodispersive properties of porous media. The tests were carried out first, with a solution of nanoparticles (C0,p = 0.2 g/L) and secondly, with a solution of nanoparticles and bromine. The transfer model based on fractionation of water into two phases, mobile and immobile, MIM, correctly fits the elution curves. The retention of colloidal particles is greater in the two media of bimodal particle size than that in the sand, which clearly demonstrates the role of textural heterogeneity in the retention mechanism. The increase in ionic strength produced by alimenting the columns with colloidal particle suspension in the presence of bromide, increases retention up to 25% in the sand. The total concentration profile of nanoparticles collected at the end of the experiment shows that the colloidal particles are retained primarily at the entrance of the columns. Hydrodispersive calculated parameters indicate that flow is more heterogeneous in bimodal media compared to sand.


Cite this paper
Prédélus, D. , Lassabatere, L. , Coutinho, A. , Louis, C. , Brichart, T. , Slimène, E. , Winiarski, T. and Angulo-Jaramillo, R. (2014) Tracing Water Flow and Colloidal Particles Transfer in an Unsaturated Soil. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 696-709. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.67067.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1981.03615995004500060004x

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007WR006541

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.04.053

[38]   Hanna, K., Rusch, B., Lassabatere, L., Hofmann, A. and Humbert, B. (2010) Reactive Transport of Gentisic Acid in a Hematite-Coated Sand Column: Experimental Study and Modeling. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 3351-3366.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2010.03.022

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/PROC-353-363

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es062726m

[50]   Kretzschmar, R., Borkovec, M., Grolimund, D. and Elimelech, M. (1999) Mobile Subsurface Colloids and Their Role in Contaminant Transport. Advances in Agronomy, 66, 121-193.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60427-7

[51]   Fried, J.J. (1975) Groundwater Pollution. Elsevier Scientific, Amsterdam.

[52]   DeNovio, N.M., Saiers, J.E. and Ryan, J.N. (2004) Colloid Movement in Unsaturated Porous Media. Recent Advances and Future Directions. Vadose Zone Journal, 3, 338-351.

[53]   Torkzaban, S., Hassanizadeh, S.M., Schijven, J.F. and van den Berg, H.H.J.L. (2006) Role of Air-Water Interfaces on Retention of Viruses under Unsaturated Conditions. Water Resources Research, 42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006WR004904

[54]   van der, Lee J., Ledoux, E., de Marsily, G., de Cayeux, M.D., van der Weerd, H., Fraters, B., Doods, J., Rodier, E., Sardin, M. and Hernandez, A. (1994) A Bibliographical Review of Colloid Transport through the Geosphere. Nuclear Science and Technology, European Commission.

[55]   Fang, J., Shan, X.Q., Wen, B., Lin, J.M. and Owens, G. (2009) Stability of Titania Nanoparticles in Soil Suspensions and Transport in Saturated Homogeneous Soil Columns. Environmental Pollution, 157, 1101-1109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.11.006

[56]   Solovitch, N., Labille, J., Rose, J., Chaurand, P., Borschneck, D., Wiesner, M.R. and Bottero, J.-Y. (2010) Concurrent Aggregation and Deposition of TiO2 Nanoparticles in a Sandy Porous Media. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 4897-4902.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es1000819

[57]   Compère, F., Porel, G. and Delay, F. (2001) Transport and Retention of Clay Particles in Saturated Porous Media. Influence of Ionic Strength and Pore Velocity. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 49, 1-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7722(00)00184-4

[58]   Redman, J.A., Walker, S.L. and Elimelech, M. (2004) Bacterial Adhesion and Transport in Porous Media: Role of the Secondary Energy Minimum. Environmental Science & Technology, 38, 1777-1785.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es034887l

[59]   Tufenkji, N. and Elimelech, M. (2004) Deviation from Colloid Filtration Theory in the Presence of Repulsive Electrostatic Interactions: Implications to Microbial Transport. National Meeting—American Chemical Society Division of Environmental Chemistry, 44, 773-774.

[60]   Torkzaban, S., Bradford, S.A., van Genuchten, M.Th. and Walker, S.L. (2008) Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media: The Role of Water Content and Ionic Strength on Particle Straining. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 96, 113-127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2007.10.006

[61]   Jacobs, A., Lafolie, F., Herry, J.M. and Debroux, M. (2007) Kinetic Adhesion of Bacterial Cells to Sand: Cell Surface Properties and Adhesion Rate. Colloids and Surfaces B—Biointerfaces, 59, 35-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2007.04.008

[62]   Majdalani, S., Michel, E., Di Pietro, L., Angulo-Jaramillo, R. and Rousseau, M. (2007) Mobilization and Preferential Transport of Soil Particles during Infiltration: A Core-Scale Modeling Approach. Water Resources Research, 43.

[63]   Herzig, J.P., Leclerc, D.M. and LeGoff, P. (1970) Flow of Suspension through Porous Media: Application to Deep Filtration. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 62, 8-35.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie50725a003

[64]   Tufenkji, N. and Elimelech, M. (2004) Deviation from the Classical Colloid Filtration Theory in the Presence of Repulsive DLVO Interactions. Langmuir, 20, 10818-10828.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la0486638

[65]   Torkzaban, S., Kim, H.N., Simunek, J. and Bradford, S.A. (2010) Hysteresis of Colloid Retention and Release in Saturated Porous Media during Transients in Solution Chemistry. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 1662-1669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es903277p

[66]   Bradford, S.A. and Bettahar, M. (2006) Concentration Dependent Transport of Colloids in Saturated Porous Media. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 82, 99-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2005.09.006

[67]   Foppen, J.W., van Herwerden, M. and Schijven, J. (2007) Transport of Escherichia coli in Saturated Porous Media: Dual Mode Deposition and Intra-Population Heterogeneity. Water Research, 41, 1743-1753.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.12.041

[68]   Shen, C.Y., Huang, Y.F., Li, B.G. and Jin, Y. (2008) Effects of Solution Chemistry on Straining of Colloids in Porous Media under Unfavorable Conditions. Water Resources Research, 44, Published Online.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007WR006580

[69]   Bradford, S.A., Torkzaban, S., Leij, F.J., simunek, J. and van Genuchten, M.T. (2009) Modeling the Coupled Effects of Pore Geometry and Velocity on Colloid Transport and Retention. Water Ressources Research, 45, Published Online.

[70]   Bien, L.B., Predelus, D., Lassabatere, L., Winiarsky, T. and Angulo-Jaramillo, R. (2013) Combined Effect of Infiltration, Capillary Barrier and Sloping Layered Soil on Flow and Solute Transfer in a Heterogeneous Lysimeter. Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 3, 138-153.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojmh.2013.33018

[71]   Goutaland, D., Winiarski, T., Dubé, J.S., Bièvre, G., Buoncristiani, J.F., Chouteau, M. and Giroux, B. (2008) Hydrostratigraphic Characterization of Glaciofluvial Deposits Underlying an Infiltration Basin Using Ground Penetrating Radar. Vadose Zone Journal, 7, 194-207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/vzj2007.0003

[72]   Arya, L.M. and Paris, J.F. (1981) A Physicempirical Model to Predict the Soil Moisture Characteristic from Particle-Size Distribution and Bulk-Density Data. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 45, 1023-1030.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1981.03615995004500060004x

[73]   Hanna, K., Lassabatere, L. and Bechet, B. (2012) Transport of Two Naphtoic Acids and Salicylic Acid in Soil: Experimental Study and Empirical Modeling. Water Research, 46, 4457-4467.

[74]   Simunek, J. and van Genuchten, M.T. (2008) Modeling Nonequilibrium Flow and Transport Processes Using Hydrus Version 4.0. HYDRUS 1D. Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, 7, 782-797.

[75]   Marquardt, D.W. (1963) An Algorithm for Least-Squares Estimation of Nonlinear Parameters. Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 11, 431-441.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/0111030

[76]   Bear, J. (1972) Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. American Elsevier, New York.

[77]   Brusseau, H.L., Jessup, R.E. and Rao, P.S.C. (1989) Modeling the Transport of Solutes Influenced by Multiprocess Nonequilibrium. Water Resources Research, 25, 1971-1988.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/WR025i009p01971

[78]   Selim, H.M., Ma, L. and Zhu, H. (1999) Predicting Solute Transport in Soils: Second-Order Two-Site Models. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63, 768-777.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1999.634768x

[79]   Bradford, S.A., Bettehar, M., simunek, J. and van Genuchten, M.T. (2004) Straining and Attachment of Colloids in Physically Heterogeneous Porous Media. Vadose Zone Journal, 3, 384-394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2113/3.2.384

[80]   Pot, V., simunek, J., Benoit, P., Coquet, Y., Yra, A. and Martínez-Cordón, M.J. (2005) Impact of Rainfall Intensity on the Transport of Two Herbicides in Undisturbed Grassed Filter Strip Soil Cores. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 81, 63-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2005.06.013

[81]   Gargiulo, G. Bradford, S.A. simunek, J. Ustohal, P., Vereecken, H. and Klumpp, E. (2007) Bacteria Transport and Deposition under Unsaturated Conditions: The Role of the Matrix Grain Size and the Bacteria Surface Protein. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 92, 255-273.

[82]   Gargiulo, G. Bradford, S.A. simunek, J. Ustohal, P., Vereecken, H. and Klumpp, E. (2008) Bacteria Transport and Deposition under Unsaturated Conditions: The Role of Water Content and Bacteria Surface Hydrophobicity. Vadose Zone Journal, 7, 406-419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/vzj2007.0068

[83]   Torkzaban, S., Tazehkand, S.S., Walker, S.L. and Bradford, S.A. (2008) Transport and Fate of Bacteria in Porous Media: Coupled Effects of Chemical Conditions and Pore Space Geometry. Water Resources Research, 44, Published Online.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007WR006541

[84]   Sardin, M., Schweich, D., Leij, F.J. and van Genuchten, M.T. (1991) Modeling the Nonequilibrium Transport of Linearly Interacting Solutes: A Review. Water Resources Research, 27, 2287-2307.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/91WR01034

[85]   Lassabatere, L., Spadini, L., Delolme, C., Février, L., Cloutier, R.G. and Winiarski, T. (2007) Concomitant Zn-Cd and Pb Retention in a Carbonated Fluvio-Glacial Deposit under Both Static and Dynamic Conditions. Chemosphere, 69, 1499-1508.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.04.053

[86]   Hanna, K., Rusch, B., Lassabatere, L., Hofmann, A. and Humbert, B. (2010) Reactive Transport of Gentisic Acid in a Hematite-Coated Sand Column: Experimental Study and Modeling. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 3351-3366.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2010.03.022

[87]   Reimus, P.W., Robinson, B.A., Nuttall, H.E. and Kale, R. (1995) Simultaneous Transport of Synthetic Colloids and Nonsorbing Solute through Single Saturated Natural Fractures. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 353, 363-370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/PROC-353-363

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