OJE  Vol.4 No.6 , May 2014
Abies sibirica Male Reproductive Cones Developmental Shift at Introduction
Abstract: A strong effect of climate on phenological events in conifers has been documented by several studies. To study adaptation of reproductive processes in Abies sibirica Ledeb. to changing environment, the phenology of the development of the species male reproductive cones at introduction was studied. Phenological shift in Abies sibirica meiosis and pollination was observed. An earlier start of male bud reproductive development is founded in V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest Arboretum resulted in increasing meiosis and pollen irregularities. Insufficient high quality pollen in the species at its pollination stage may be a major factor responsible for the incapability to produce the viable seeds in quantities sufficient for pollination in seed gardens. Responses of the fir male cone development to the current environmental conditions at the Arboretum may be considered as a model of adaptation of the species to climatic changes.
Cite this paper: Bazhina, E. (2014) Abies sibirica Male Reproductive Cones Developmental Shift at Introduction. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 311-320. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.46029.

[1]   Kohmann, K. and Johnsen, O. (1994) The Timing of Bud Set in Seedlings of Picea abies from Seed Crops of a Cool versus a Warm Spring and Summer. Silvae Genetica, 43, 329-333.

[2]   Levanicˇ, T., Gricˇar, J., Gagen, M., Jalkanen, R., Loader, N.J., McCarroll, D., Oven, P. and Robertson, I. (2009) The Climate Sensitivity of Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] in the Southeastern European Alps. Trees, 23, 169-180.

[3]   Messaud, Y., Bergeron, Y. and Asselin, H. (2007) Reproductive Potential of Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea), White Spruce (Picea glauca), and Black Spruce (P. mariana) at the Ecotone between Mixedwood and Coniferous Forests in the Boreal Zone of Western Quebec. American Journal of Botany, 94, 746-754.

[4]   Owens, J.N. and Blake, M.D. (1985) Forest Tree Seed Production. A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research. Information Report PI-X-53. Canadian Forest Service, Petawawa, National Forestry Institute, Ontario.

[5]   Sirois, L. (2000) Spatiotemporal Variation in Black Spruce Cone and Seed Crops along a Boreal Forest-Tree Line Transect. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30, 900-909.

[6]   Zhang, W.H., Xu, X.B. and Zhou, J.Y. (2006) Study on Reproduction Ecology of Endangered Species Abies chensiensis. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 26, 2417-2424.

[7]   Herman, J.J. and Sultan, S.E. (2011). Adaptive Transgenerational Plasticity in Plants: Case Studies, Mechanisms, and Implications for Natural Populations. Frontiers in Plant Science, 2, 1-10.

[8]   Andersson, B. (1994) After-Effects of Maternal Environment on Autumn Frost Hardiness in Pinus sylvestris Seedlings in Relation to Cultivation Techniques. Tree Physiology, 14, 313-322.

[9]   Greenwood, M.S. and Hutchison, K.W. (1996) Genetic Aftereffects of Increased Temperature in Larix. In: Hom, J., Birdsey, R. and O’Brian, K., Eds., Proceedings of the 1995 Meeting of the Northern Global Change Program, USDA Forest Service Report, Radnor, 56-62.

[10]   Johnsen, O., Skroppa, T., Haug, G., Apeland, I. and Ostreng, G. (1995) Sexual Reproduction in a Greenhouse and Reduced Autumn Frost Hardiness of Picea abies Progenies. Tree Physiology, 15, 551-555.

[11]   Johnsen, O., Skroppa, T., Junttila, O. and Dahlen, O.G. (1996) Influence of the Female Flowering Environment on Autumn Frost-Hardiness of Picea abies Progenies. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 92, 797-802.

[12]   Owens, J.N., Johnsen, O., Dahlen, O.G. and Skroppa, T. (2001) Potential Effects of Temperature on Early Reproductive Development and Progeny Performance in Picea abies (L.) Karst. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 16, 221-237.

[13]   Stoehr, M.U., L’Hirondelle, S.J., Binder, W.D. and Webber, J.E. (1998) Parental Environment Aftereffects on Germination, Growth, and Adaptive Traits in Selected Spruce Families. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28, 418-426.

[14]   Skroppa, T., Kohmann, K., Johnsen, O., Steffendrem, A. and Edvardsen, O.M. (2007) Field Performance and Early Test Results of Offspring from Two Norway Spruce Seed Orchards Containing Clones Transferred to Warmerclimates. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37, 515-522.

[15]   Beuker, E. (1994) Adaptation to Climatic Changes of the Timing of Bud Burst in Population of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. Tree Physiology, 14, 961-970. PMid:14967662

[16]   Beuker, E., Valtonen, E. and Repo, T. (1998) Seasonal Variation in the Frost Hardiness of Scots Pine and Norway Spruce in Old Provenance Experiments in Finland. Forest Ecology and Management, 107, 87-98.

[17]   Olsen, J. (2010) Light and Temperature Sensing and Signaling in Induction of Bud Dormancy in Woody Plants. Plant Molecular Biology, 73, 37-47.

[18]   Pravdin, L.F. (1964) Immediate Tasks of Scientific Researches and Practice on Forest Genetics and Breeding in Siberia. Breeding of Woody Species in East Siberia. Nauka, Moscow.

[19]   Gavrilov, I.A. and Butorina, A.K. (2005) Cytogenetics of the Canadian Hemlock upon Introduction in the Voronezh District. Russian Forestry Science (Lesovedenie), 3, 60-65.

[20]   Shkutko, N.V. (1973) Development of Generative Buds in Coniferous Plants Introduced in the Byelorussia. Materials of I Vsesoyuz. simp. “Polovaya reproduktsiya khvoinyk” [Materials of the 1st All-Union Symposium “Sexual Reproduction of Coniferous Plants”], Novosibirsk, 2, 132-134.

[21]   Arista, M. and Talavera, S. (1994) Pollen Dispersal Capacity and Pollen Viability of Abies pinsapo Boiss. Silvae Genetica, 43, 155-158.

[22]   Hak, O. and Russell, J.H. (2004) Environmental Effects on Yellow-Cedar Pollen Quality. Forest Genetic Council, Extension Note, 05, 9.

[23]   Server “Pogoda of Russia”.

[24]   Varpholomeev, I.V. and Maltsev, Y.M. (Eds.) (2006) Gosudarstvennii doklad O sostoyanii i ohrane okruzhajuscheii sredii v Krasnoyarskom kraye v 2006 [State Report about Environmental Status and Protection in Krasnoyarsk Region in 2006]. Priroda, Krasnoyarsk.

[25]   Pausheva, Z.P. (1988) Practikum po cytologii rastenii. Agropromizdat, Moscow.

[26]   StatSoft, Inc. STATISTICA (2001) Data Analysis Software System, Version 6.

[27]   Bazhina, E.V., Kvitko, O.V. and Muratova, E.N. (2011) Specific Features of Meiosis in the Siberian Fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) at the the V.N. Sukachev Institute, Russia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20, 415-428.

[28]   Bazhina, E. (2012) Siberian Fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) Pollen Viability at the V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest Arboretum. EuroGard VI: 6th European Botanic Gardens in a Changing World, Chios Island, 28 May-3 June 2012, Abstracts, 86.

[29]   Golubovskaya, I.N. (1985) An Experimental Study of Gene Control of Meiosis in the Maize. In: Teoreticheskie osnovy s elektsii [Theoretical Found of Selection], Nauka, Novosibirsk, 119-135.

[30]   Politi, P.I., Georghiou, K. and Arianoutsou, M. (2011) Reproductive Biology of Abies cephalonica Loudon in Mount Aenos National Park, Cephalonia, Greece. Trees, 25, 655-668.

[31]   Debazac, E.F. (1965) Observations sur le debourrement et la croissance en longueur de quelques espe`ces de sapin. Revue forestière franaise, 2, 120-130.

[32]   Andersson, E. (1980) Temperature-Conditioned Irregularities in Pollen Mother Cells of Picea abies (L.) Karst. Hereditas, 92, 27-35.

[33]   Chira, E. (1964) Vplyv teploty na pribeh meiozy pelovych materskych buniek Taxus bassata L. [The Temperature Influence on Taxus bassata L. Meiosis]. Biologia, Bratislava, 11, 235-243.

[34]   Christiansen, H. (1960) On the Effect of Low Temperature on Meiosis and Pollen Fertility in Larix decidua Mill. Silvae Genetica, 9, 72-78.

[35]   Eriksson, G. (1968) Temperature Response of Pollen Mother Cells in Larix and Its Importance for Pollen Formation. Studia Forestalia Suecica, 63, 1-131.

[36]   Jonsson, A. (1974) A Study on the Temperature Response of Pollen Mother Cells in Norway Spruce. Studia Forestalia Suecica, 116, 1-32.

[37]   Aussenac, G. (1980) Comportement hydrique de rameaux excises de quelques espe`ces de sapins et de pins noirs en phase de dessication. Annals of Forest Science, 37, 201-215.

[38]   Luomajoki, A. (1977) Effects of Temperature on Spermatophyte Male Meiosis. Hereditas, 85, 33-48.

[39]   Luomajoki, A. (1986) Timing of Microsporogenesis in Trees with Reference to Climatic Adaptation. Acta Forestalia Fennica, 196, 1-33.

[40]   Itoo, M. (1975) Flowering and Pollen-Dispersal in a Seed Orchard of Abies homolepis. Journal of Japan Forestry Society, 57, 121-124.

[41]   Arista, M. and Talavera, S. (1994) Phenology and Anatomy of the Reproductive Phase of Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 116, 223-234.

[42]   Edwards, D.G.W. (2003) Breaking Dormancy in Tree Seeds with Special Reference to rs (Abies Species)—The 1.49 Solution. Proceedings of the ISTA Forest Tree and Shrub Seed Committee Workshop Prague—Prhonice, Czech Republic, October 20-22, 2003: Hosted by Forestry and Game Management Research Institute Jílovitě-Strnady, Czech Republic, Prague, 20-22 October 2003, CR and Forestry Commission Research Agency, UK, 18-23.

[43]   Owens, J.N., Colangeli, A.M. and Morris, S.J. (1991) Factors Affecting Seed Set in Douglas-Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Canadian Journal of Botany, 69, 229-238.

[44]   Sorensen, F.C., Franklin, J.F. and Wollard, R. (1976) Self-Pollination Effects on Seed and Seedling Traits in Noble Fir. Forest Science, 22, 155-159.

[45]   Gitzendanner, M.A. and Soltis, P.S. (2000) Patterns of Genetic Variation in Rare and Widespread Plant Congeners. American Journal of Botany, 87, 783-792.

[46]   Godt, M.J.W. and Hamrick J.L. (2001) Genetic Diversity in Rare Southeastern Plants. Natural Areas Journal, 21, 61-70.

[47]   Chung, M.S. (1981) Flowering Characteristics of Pinus sylvestris L. with Special Emphasis on the Reproductive Adaptation to Local Temperature Factor. Acta Forestalia Fennica, 169, 69 p.

[48]   Mikola, J. (1982) Bud-Set Phenology as an Indicator of Climatic Adaptation of Scots Pine in Finland. Sylvae Fennica, 16, 178-184.

[49]   Olsen, J. (2010) Light and Temperature Sensing and Signaling in Induction of Bud Dormancy in Woody Plants. Plant Molecular Biology, 73, 37-47.

[50]   Owens, J.N. and Molder, M. (1985) The Reproductive Cycles of True Firs. Information Services Branch Ministry of Forest, Victoria.

[51]   Wright, J.W. and Bull, W.I. (1963) Geographic Variation in Scotch Pine. Silvae Genetica, 12, 1-25.

[52]   Boyko, A. and Kovalchuk, I. (2011) Genome Instability and Epigenetic Modification—Heritable Responses to Environmental Stress? Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 14, 260-266.

[53]   Johnsen, ., Fossdal, C.G., Nagy, N., Mlmann, J., Dhlen, O.G. and Skrppa, T. (2005) Climatic Adaptation in Picea abies Progenies Is Affected by the Temperature during Zygotic Embryogenesis and Seed Maturation. Plant, Cell and Environment, 28, 1090-1102.

[54]   Skroppa, T., Nikkanen T., Ruotsalainen, S. and Johnsen, O. (1994) Effect of Sexual Reproduction at Different Latitudes on Performance of the Progeny of Picea abies. Silvae Genetica, 43, 297-303.

[55]   Zas, R., Cendán, C. and Sampedro, L. (2013) Mediation of Seed Provisioning in the Transmission of Environmental Maternal Effects in Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). Heredity, 111, 248-255.

[56]   Bogdanov, Y.F. (2003) Variability and Evolution of Meiosis. Genetika, 39, 453-457.

[57]   Khvostova, V.V. and Yachevskaya, G.L. (1975) Chromosome Rearrangements in Meiosis. In: Khvostova, V.V. and Bogdanov, Y.F., Eds., Tsitologiya i genetika meioza [Cytology and Genetics of Meiosis], Nauka, Moscow, 232-262.

[58]   Yakovlev, I., Fossdal, C.G., Skrppa, T., Olsen, J.E., Jahren, A.H. and Johnsen, . (2012) An Adaptive Epigenetic Memory in Conifers with Important Implications for Seed Production. Seed Science Research, 22, 63-76.