Back
 PP  Vol.5 No.5 , May 2014
Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of Tilmicosin in the Treatment of Pasteurella haemolytica Bronchopneumonia in Calves
Abstract: Tilmicosin was administered intravenously and subcutaneously at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg bwt to determine its concentration in blood and bronchial secretion as well as its kinetic behavior in healthy and Pasteurella haemolytica type A1-infected calves. Sever acute bronchopneumonia was induced in 10 calves by inoculating them intra-tracheally with P. haemolytica type A1. The calves were treated with tilmicosin; 5 of these received the drug intravenously and the other 5 were injected subcutaneously. After a slow intravenous injection, the serum concentration-time curve indicated a two compartment open model with a mean elimination half-lives (t1/2bs) of 22.09 and 22.14 hours before and after infection, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT) corrected for a bolus injection was 2.25 and 2.20 hours and the mean MRTinf was 25.27 and 25.46 hours in healthy and P. haemolytica-infected calves, respectively. After subcutaneous injection, the drug was eliminated more slowly (before and after infection) from serum and bronchial secretions, with t1/2bs of (24.60 and 25.85 hours) and (33.74 and 31.78 hours), respectively. The apparent volume of distribution (Vd(area)) of tilmicosin was more than 1 litre·kg-1. The peak serum and bronchial secretions of tilmicosin concentration were (1.33 and 1.36 mg·ml-1) and (1.40 and 1.70 mg·ml-1) attained at (7.21 and 7.15 hours) and 7.11 and 7.10 hours) after subcutaneous injection, respectively. Tilmicosin was good secreted into bronchial secretions having AUCbronchial secretion/ AUCserum ratio of approximately 1:1.24 and 1:1.22 in healthy and P. haemolytica-
Cite this paper: Soliman, A. and Ali Ayad, A. (2014) Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of Tilmicosin in the Treatment of Pasteurella haemolytica Bronchopneumonia in Calves. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 5, 514-523. doi: 10.4236/pp.2014.55061.
References

[1]   Vermeersch, H., Vandenbossche, G., Remon, J.P., Samyn, W., Vandendriessche, K., Sustronck, B., et al. (1996) Pharmacokinetics of Nebulized Sodium Ceftiofur in Calves. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 19, 152-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.1996.tb00029.x

[2]   Scott, P.R. (1995) Efficacy of Strategic Tilmicosin Injection during an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease in Housed Beef Calves. British Veterinary Journal, 151, 587-589.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1935(05)80030-2

[3]   Dyer, R.M. (1982) The Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A Complex Interaction of Host, Environment and Infectious Factors. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 4, S296-S304.

[4]   Confer, A.W., Panciera, R.J., Corstvet, R.E., Rummage, J.A. and Fulton, R.W. (1984) Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis: Effects of Culture Age of Pasteurella haemolytica Used as Live Vaccine. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 45, 2543-2545.

[5]   Gibbs, H.A., Allan, E.M., Wiseman, A. and Selman, I.E. (1984) Experimental Production of Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis. Research in Veterinary Science, 37, 154-166.

[6]   Ames, T.R., Markham, R.J., Opuda-Asibo, J., Leininger, J.R. and Maheswaran, S.K. (1985) Pulmonary Response to Intratracheal Challenge with Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 49, 395-400.

[7]   Sustronck, B., Deprez, P., Muylle, E., Vermeersch, H., Vandenbossche, G. and Remon, J.P. (1995) Evaluation of the Nebulisation of Sodium Ceftiofur in the Treatment of Experimental Pasteurella haemolytica Bronchopneumonia in Calves. Research in Veterinary Science, 59, 267-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0034-5288(95)90015-2

[8]   Thompson, T.D., Laudert, S.B., Chamberland, S. and Lawrence, K. (1994) Micotil: Pharmacokinetics of Tilmicosin, a Semi-Synthetic Macrolide Antibiotic, in Acutely Pneumonic Cattle and Primary Bovine Alveolar Macrophages. 6th European Association for Vet Pharmacology and Therapeutics Congress, Edinburgh, 7-11 August 1994, 31-32.

[9]   Scott, P.R. (1995) A Field Study of Respiratory Disease Affecting Housed Beef Calves in the United Kingdom. Cattle Practice, 3, 393-401.

[10]   Musser, J., Mechor, G.D., Grohn, Y.T., Dubovi, E.J. and Shin, S. (1996) Comparison of Tilmicosin in with Long-Acting Oxytetracycline for Treatment of Respiratory Tract Disease in Calves. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 208, 102-106.

[11]   Hartman, E.G. and Geryl, J. (1993) Comparison between the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of Tilmicosin and Oxytetracycline for Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurella haemolytica Isolates. Veterinary Quarterly, 15, 184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.1993.9694404

[12]   Ziv, G., Shem-Tov, M., Glickman, A., Winkler, M. and Saran, A. (1995) Tilmicosin Antibacterial Activity and Pharmacokinetics in Cows. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 18, 340-345.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.1995.tb00601.x

[13]   Friis, C. and Agerso, H. (1998) Penetration of Amoxycillin to the Respiratory Tract Tissues and Secretions in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infected Pigs. Research in Veterinary Science, 64, 251-257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5288(98)90134-5

[14]   Carter, G.R. (1984) Diagnostic Procedures in Veterinary Bacteriology and Mycology. 4th Edition, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, 129-142.

[15]   Bennett, J.V., Brodie, J.L., Benner, E.J. and Kirby, W.M.H. (1966) Simplified, Accurate Method for Antibiotic Assay of Clinical Specimens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 14, 170-177.

[16]   Thompson, T.D., Laudert, S.B., Chamberland, S. and Lawrence, K. (1994) Micotil: Pharmacokinetics of Tilmicosin, a Semi-Syntheticmacrolide Antibiotic, in Acutely Pneumonic Cattle and Primary Bovine Alveolarmacrophages. Proceedings of the 6th European Association of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Edinburgh, 7-11 August 1994, 31.

[17]   Baggot, J.D. (1987) Some Aspects of Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Veterinary Medicine. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1, 5-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2885.1978.tb00300.x

[18]   Gibaldi, M. (1984) Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 3rd Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 45-111.

[19]   SAS Institute (1982) SAS User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, 191-193.

[20]   Ramadan, A. (1997) Pharmacokinetics of Tilmicosin in Serum and Milk of Goats. Research in Veterinary Science, 62, 48-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5288(97)90179-X

[21]   Riviere, J.E., Craigmill, A.L. and Sundlof, S.F. (1990) Handbook of Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Residues of Veterinary Antimicrobials. CRS Press Inc., Boca Raton, 229.

[22]   Barragry, T. (1991) Macrolide Antibiotics. Irish Veterinary News, May 1991.

[23]   Gilman, A.G., Goodman, L.S. and Gilman, A. (1980) Goodman and Gilman’s: “The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics”. 6th Edition, Macmillan, New York, 21.

[24]   Parker, R.M., Patel, R.K.P. and Simmons, H.A. (1994) The Pharmacokinetics of Tilmicosin in Sheep. Proceedings of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, 6th International Congress, Edinburgh, 7-11 August 1994, 226-227.

[25]   Ose, E.E. and Tonkinson, L.V. (1988) Single-Dose Treatment of Neonatal Calf Pneumonia with the New Macrolide Antibiotic Tilmicosin. Veterinary Record, 123, 367-369.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.123.14.367

[26]   Gourlay, R.N., Thomas, L.H., Wyld, S.G. and Smith, C.J. (1989) Effect of a New Macrolide Antibiotic (Tilmicosin) on Pneumonia Experimentally Induced in Calves by Mycoplasma bovis and Pasteurella haemolytica. Research in Veterinary Science, 47, 84-89.

[27]   Mee, J.F. and O’Farrell, K. (1991) Tilmicosin and Calf Pneumonia. Veterinary Record, 128, 460.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.128.19.460-a

[28]   Laven, R. and Andrews, A.H. (1991) Long-Acting Antibiotic Formulations in the Treatment of Calf Pneumonia: A Comparative Study of Tilmicosin and Oxytetracycline. Veterinary Record, 129, 109-111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.129.6.109

[29]   Smith, R.A., Gill, D.R. and van Koevering, M.T. (1993) Effects of Tilmicosin or Ceftiofur on Health and Performance of Stressed Stocker Cattle. Animal Science Research Report, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State University, No. P 933, Stillwater, 308-311.

[30]   Fodor, L., Varga, J., Gallowitsch, F., Horvath-Papp, I., Miklos, G., Lajcsak, A. and Harmath, A. (1993) Treatment of Calf Pneumonia with Tilmicosin. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 41, 41-49.

[31]   Morck, D.W., Merrill, J.K., Thorlakson, B.E., Olson, M.E., Tonkinson, L.V. and Costerton, J.W. (1993) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 202, 273-277.

[32]   Walters, J., Brown, D.R. and Tarrant, M.E. (1994) Efficacy of Pulmotil (Tilmicosin in Premix Form) against Naturally-Occurring Pneumonia in Growing-Fattening Pigs. Proceedings of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, 6th International Congress, Edinburgh, 7-11 August 1994, 202-203.

[33]   Allan, E.M., Gibbs, H.A., Wiseman, A. and Selman I.E. (1983) Pasteurella haemolytica Pneumonia in Weaned Housed Single Suckled Calves. Veterinary Record, 112, 327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.112.14.327

[34]   Whiteley, L.O., Maheswaran, S.K., Weiss, D.J., Ames, T.R. and Kannan, M.S. (1992) Pasteurella haemolytica A1 and Bovine Respiratory Disease: Pathogenesis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 6, 11-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.1992.tb00980.x

[35]   Grunau, H. (1992) Field Trial of Tilmicosin for Endemic Bronchopneumonia of Beef Calves. Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, 103.

[36]   Grunau, H. and Klee, W. (1993) Field Trial of the Treatment of Enzootic Bronchopneumonia in Beef Calves with a New Macrolide Antibiotic, Tilmicosin. Praktische Tierarzt, 74, 210-218.

[37]   Winter, T. and Hofmann, W. (1994) Treatment of Chronic Bronchopneumonia in Calves with the Macrolide Antibiotic Tilmicosin. PraktischeTierarzt, 75, 302-308.

 
 
Top