IJOC  Vol.4 No.2 , June 2014
Optimization of Grafted Fibrous Polymer as a Solid Basic Catalyst for Biodiesel Fuel Production
Grafted fibrous polymer with quaternary amine groups could function as a highly-efficient catalyst for biodiesel fuel (BDF) production. In this study, the optimization of grafted fibrous polymer (catalyst) and transesterification conditions for the effective BDF production was attempted through a batch-wise transesterification of triglyceride (TG) with ethanol (EtOH) in the presence of a cosolvent. Trimethylamine was the optimal quaternary amine group for the grafted fibrous catalyst. The optimal degree of grafting of the grafted fibrous catalyst was greater than 170%. The optimal transesterification conditions were as follows: The optimal molar quantity of quaternary amine groups, transesterification temperature, molar ratio of TG and EtOH, and primary alkyl alcohol were 0.8 mmol, 80°C, 1:200, and 1-pentanol, respectively. The grafted fibrous catalyst could be applied to BDF production using natural oils. Furthermore, the grafted fibrous catalyst could be used repeatedly after regeneration involving three sequential processes, i.e., organic acid, alkali, and alcohol treatments, without any significant loss of catalytic activity.

Cite this paper
Ueki, Y. , Saiki, S. , Shibata, T. , Hoshina, H. , Kasai, N. and Seko, N. (2014) Optimization of Grafted Fibrous Polymer as a Solid Basic Catalyst for Biodiesel Fuel Production. International Journal of Organic Chemistry, 4, 91-105. doi: 10.4236/ijoc.2014.42011.
[1]   US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (US DOE/EIA) (2001) International Energy Outlook 2001. US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Washington DC.

[2]   US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (US DOE/EIA) (2011) International Energy Outlook 2011. US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Washington DC.

[3]   Monlau, F., Sambusiti, C., Barakat, A., Guo, X.M., Latrille, E., Trably, E., Steyer, J.-P. and Carrere, H. (2012) Predictive Models of Biohydrogen and Biomethane Production Based on the Compositional and Structural Features of Lignocellulosic Materials. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 12217-12225.

[4]   Li, Y., Zhang, R., Liu, X., Chen, C., Xiao, X., Feng, L., He, Y. and Liu, G. (2013) Evaluating Methane Production from Anaerobic Mono- and Co-Digestion of Kitchen Waste, Corn Stover, and Chicken Manure. Energy & Fuels, 27, 2085-2091.

[5]   Yangcheng, H., Jiang, H., Blanco, M. and Jane, J.-L. (2013) Characterization of Normal and Waxy Corn Starch for Bioethanol Production. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 379-386.

[6]   Limayem, A. and Ricke, S.C. (2012) Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production: Current Perspectives, Potential Issues and Future Prospects. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 38, 449-467.

[7]   Tran, H.-L., Ryu, Y.-J., Seong, D.H., Lim, S.-M. and Lee, C.-G. (2013) An Effective Acid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Impure Raw Feedstocks. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 18, 242-247.

[8]   Sagiroglu, A., Ozcan, H.M., Isbilir, S.S., Paluzar, H. and Toprakkiran, N.M. (2013) Alkali Catalysis of Different Vegetable Oils for Comparisons of Their Biodiesel Productivity. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 3, 79-85.

[9]   Mata, T.M., Sousa, I.R.B.G., Vieira, S.S. and Caetano, N.S. (2012) Biodiesel Production from Corn Oil via Enzymatic Catalysis with Ethanol. Energy & Fuels, 26, 3034-3041.

[10]   Babajide, O., Musyoka, N., Petrik, L. and Ameer, F. (2012) Novel Zeolite Na-X Synthesized from Fly Ash as a Heterogeneous Catalyst in Biodiesel Production. Catalysis Today, 190, 54-60.

[11]   Ilham, Z. and Saka, S. (2012) Optimization of Supercritical Dimethyl Carbonate Method for Biodiesel Production. Fuel, 97, 670-677.

[12]   Shibasaki-Kitakawa, N., Honda, H., Kuribayashi, H., Toda, T., Fukumura, T. and Yonemoto, T. (2007) Biodiesel Production Using Anionic Ion-Exchange Resin as Heterogeneous Catalyst. Bioresource Technology, 98, 416-421.

[13]   Tsuji, T., Kubo, M., Shibasaki-Kitakawa, N. and Yonemoto, T. (2009) Is Excess Methanol Addition Required to Drive Transesterification of Triglyceride toward Complete Conversion? Energy & Fuels, 23, 6163-6167.

[14]   Demirbas, A. (2008) Comparison of Transesterification Methods for Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oils and Fats. Energy Conversion and Management, 49, 125-130.

[15]   Helwani, Z., Othman, M.R., Aziz, N., Kim, J. and Fernando, W.J.N. (2009) Solid Heterogeneous Catalysts for Transesterification of Triglycerides with Methanol: A Review. Applied Catalysis A: General, 363, 1-10.

[16]   Zhou, D., Zhang, S., Fu, H. and Chen, J. (2012) Liquefaction of Macroalgae Enteromorpha Prolifera in Sub-/Super-critical Alcohols: Direct Production of Ester Compounds. Energy & Fuels, 26, 2342-2351.

[17]   Menetrez, M.Y. (2012) An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 7073-7085.

[18]   Ueki, Y., Mohamed, N.H., Seko, N. and Tamada, M. (2011) Rapid Biodiesel Fuel Production Using Novel Fibrous Catalyst Synthesized by Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization. International Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1, 20-25.

[19]   Madrid, J.F., Ueki, Y. and Seko, N. (2013) Abaca/Polyester Nonwoven Fabric Functionalization for Metal Ion Adsorbent Synthesis via Electron Beam-Induced Emulsion Grafting. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 90, 104-110.

[20]   Ueki, Y., Dafader, N.C., Hoshina, H., Seko, N. and Tamada, M. (2012) Study and Optimization on Graft Polymerization under Normal Pressure and Air Atmospheric Conditions, and Its Application to Metal Adsorbent. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 81, 889-898.

[21]   Iwanade, A., Kasai, N., Hoshina, H., Ueki, Y., Saiki, S. and Seko, N. (2012) Hybrid Grafted Ion Exchanger for Decontamination of Radioactive Cesium in Fukushima Prefecture and Other Contaminated Areas. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 293, 703-709.

[22]   Hoshina, H., Kasai, N., Shibata, T., Aketagawa, Y., Takahashi, M., Yoshii, A., Tsunoda, Y. and Seko, N. (2012) Synthesis of Arsenic Graft Adsorbents in Pilot Scale. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 81, 1033-1035.

[23]   Hoshina, H., Seko, N., Ueki, Y., Iyatomi, Y. and Tamada, M. (2010) Evaluation of Graft Adsorbent with N-Methyl- D-Glucamine for Boron Removal from Groundwater. Journal of Ion Exchange, 21, 153-156.

[24]   Seko, N., Hoshina, H., Kasai, N., Ueki, Y., Tamada, M., Kiryu, T., Tanaka, K. and Takahashi, M. (2010) Novel System for Recovering Scandium from Hot Spring Water with Fibrous Graft Adsorbent. Journal of Ion Exchange, 21, 117-122.

[25]   Seko, N., Katakai, A., Hasegawa, S., Tamada, M., Kasai, N., Takeda, H., Sugo, T. and Saito, K. (2003) Aquaculture of Uranium in Seawater by a Fabric-Adsorbent Submerged System. Nuclear Technology, 144, 274-278.

[26]   Holcapek, M., Jandera, P., Fischer, J. and Prokes, B. (1999) Analytical Monitoring of the Production of Biodiesel by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Various Detection Methods. Journal of Chromatography A, 858, 13-31.

[27]   Basuki, F., Seko, N. and Tamada, M. (2010) Recovery of Scandium with Phosphoric Chelating Adsorbent Prepared by Direct Radiation Graft Polymerization. Journal of Ion Exchange, 21, 127-130.

[28]   Tang, Z., Du, Z., Min, E., Gao, L., Jiang, T. and Han, B. (2006) Phase Equilibria of Methanol-Triolein System at Elevated Temperature and Pressure. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 239, 8-11.

[29]   Gunstone, F.D., Hamilton, R.J., Padley, F.B. and Qureshi, M.I. (1965) Glyceride Studies. V. The Distribution of Un-saturated Acyl Groups in Vegetable Triglycerides. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 42, 965-970.

[30]   Ramos, M.J., Fernández, C.M., Casas, A., Rodríguez, L. and Pérez, á. (2009) Influence of Fatty Acid Composition of Raw Materials on Biodiesel Properties. Bioresource Technology, 100, 261-268.