POS  Vol.5 No.2 , May 2014
A New Independent GPS-Free System for Geo-Referencing from Space
ABSTRACT
A new system’s geo-referencing from space is entirely free from any GNSS (GPS or equivalent) systems. The system addresses to various strategic and economic applications such as in remote clock synchronism, aircraft and balloon navigation, missile and smart bombs tracking, satellite orbital determination and remote target geo-positioning. The new geometry concept corresponds to an “inverted GPS” configuration, utilizing four ground-based reference stations, synchronized in time, installed at well known geodesic coordinates and a repeater in space, carried by an aircraft, balloon, satellite, etc. Signal transmitted by one of the reference bases is retransmitted by the transponder, received back by the four bases, producing four ranging measurements which are corrected for the time delays undergone in every retransmission. A minimization function was derived to compare the repeater’s positions referred to at least two groups of three reference bases, to correct for the signal transit time at the repeater and propagation delays, and consequently to provide the accurate repeater position for each time interaction. Once the repeater’s coordinates are known, the other determinations and applications become straightforward. The system solving algorithm and process performance has been demonstrated by simulations adopting a practical example with the transponder carried by an aircraft moving over bases and a target on the ground. Effects produced by reference clock synchronism uncertainties at the four bases on the measurements are reviewed.

Cite this paper
Kaufmann, P. , L. Kaufmann, P. , V. D. Pamboukian, S. and Vilhena de Moraes, R. (2014) A New Independent GPS-Free System for Geo-Referencing from Space. Positioning, 5, 37-45. doi: 10.4236/pos.2014.52005.
References
[1]   Kaufmann, P. (1997) Sistema e processo de posicionamento geográfico e navegacao. Patent of Invention No. PI-9101270-8.

[2]   Marini, J.W. (1974) Correction of Satellite Tracking Data for an Arbitrary Tropospheric Profile. Radio Science, 7, 223-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/RS007i002p00223

[3]   Anderson, A. J. (1979) Path Length Variations Due to Changes in Tropospheric Refraction. In: Tengstrom, E., Teleki, G., Ohlsson, I. and Reidel, D., Eds., Proceedings of IAU Symposium nr. 89—Refractional Influences in Astrometry and Geodesy, Dordrecht, 157-162.

[4]   Klobuchar, J.A. (1986) Design and Characteristics of the GPS Ionospheric Time Delay Algorithm for Single Frequency Users, in PLANS’86. Position Location and Navigation Symposium, Las Vegas, 4-7 November 1986, 280-286.

[5]   Hunt, S.M., Close, S., Coster, A.J., Stevens, E., Schuett, L.M. and Vardaro, A. (2000) Equatorial Atmospheric and Ionospheric Modeling at Kwajalein Missile Range. Lincoln Laboratory Journal, 12, 45-64.

[6]   Radovanovic, T.S. (2002) Adjustment of Satellite-Based Ranging Observations and Deformation Monitoring. Ph.D., Dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary.

[7]   Honma, M., Tamura, Y. and Reid, M.J. (2008) Tropospheric Delay Calibrations for VERA. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 60, 951-960. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pasj/60.5.951

[8]   Skolnick, M.I. (1962) Introduction to Radar Systems. McGraw-Hill, New York.

[9]   Larson, K.M. (2007) An Assessment of Relativistic Effects for Low Earth Orbiters: The GRACE Satellites. Metrologia, 44, 484-490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0026-1394/44/6/007

[10]   Wislez, J.-M. (1996) Forward Scattering of Radio Waves in Meteor Trails. Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, Brandenburg, 1995, 99-117.

[11]   Kaufmann, P. and Levit Kaufmann, P. (2012) Process and System to Determine Temporal Changes in Retransmission and Propagation of Signals Used to Measure Distances, Synchronize Actuators and Georeference Applications. Patent of Invention PI03003968-4, Filed in Brazil on 19 March 2012, International PCT, Application Filed on 17 April 2012.

[12]   Kaufmann, P., Kaufmann, P.L., Pamboukian, S.V.D. and Vilhena de Moraes., R. (2012) Signal Transreceiver Transit Times and Propagation Delay Corrections for Rangiung and Geo-Referencing Applications. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2012, 1-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/595823

[13]   Kaufmann, P.L., Vilhena de Moraes, R., Kuga, H.K., Beraldo, L.A., Motta Marins, C.N. and Kaufmann, P. (2006) Nonrecursive Algorithm for Remote Geolocation Using Ranging Measurements. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2006, 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/MPE/2006/79389

[14]   Pamboukian, S.V.D. (2012) Novo processo de georeferenciamento: determinacao de posicao de transponder remoto e aplicacoes no posicionamento de alvos e disseminacao de tempos. Software Registered in Brazil, Protocol 02012-0032225.

[15]   Matlab, M. (2012) The Language of Technical Computing. http://www.mathworks.com/products/matlab/.

[16]   Dana, P.H. (1995) Geodetic Datum Overview.
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/datum/datum.html.

[17]   NIMA (National Imagery and Mapping Agency) (1997) Third Edition of “Department of Defense World Geodetic System 1984: Its Definition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems”. NIMA TR8350.2, National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Bethesda. http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/publications/tr8350.2/wgs84fin.pdf

[18]   EUROCONTROL (European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation) and IfEN (Institute of Geodesy and Navigation) (1998) WGS 84 Implementation Manual-Version 2.4. Brussels-Belgium, Munich.
http://www2.icao.int/en/pbn/ICAO%20Documentation/GNSS%20and%20WGS%2084/Eurocontrol%20WGS%20 84.pdf

[19]   Knappe, S., Gerginov, V., Schwindt, P.D.D., Shah, V., Robinson, H.G., Hollberg, L. and Kitching, J. (2005) Atomic Vapor Cells for Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks with Improved Long-Term Frequency Stability. Optics Letters, 30, 2351-2353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.30.002351

[20]   Affolderbach, C., Breschi, E., Schori, C. and Mileti, G. (2006) Gas-Cell Atomic Clocks for Space: New Results and Alternative Schemes. In: Wilson, A., Ed., 6th International Conference on Space Optics, Proceedings of ESA/CNES ICSO, Noordwijk, 27-30 June 2006.

[21]   (2008) Ultra Low Cost Rubidium (LCR-900). http://www.spectratime.com/documents/lcr_spec1.pdf

[22]   Clark, T.A. and Hambly, R.H. (2006) Improving the Performance of Low Cost GPS Timing Receivers. Proceedings of 38th Annual PTTI Meeting, Reston, 7-9 December 2006, 37.

 
 
Top