JCT  Vol.5 No.6 , May 2014
Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Sudanese by in Situ Hybridization
ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study is to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies of Sudanese patients using EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in Situ hybridization (EBER-ISH). Study Design: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the National Center for ENT diseases and Head and Neck Surgery and the Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum City, Sudan. Subjects and Methods: Biopsies from 43 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were examined for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus using EBER-ISH. Ten normal samples were used to assess the presence of the virus in non cancer tissues. Results: Fifty three samples were examined for the presence of the virus by EBER-ISH, 43 biopsies were NPC and ten were normal. Histologically the cases were, 20 (46.5%), 20 (46.5%) and 3 (7%) of the biopsies were classified as WHO types II, III and mixed type II and III, respectively; there were no cases of type I NPC. All nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies (100%) were positive for EBER1 in almost all carcinoma cells with focal and intense dark-blue staining limited to the nucleus; no hybridization was observed in the cytoplasm. No hybridization was observed in all ten non cancer tissues. Conclusion: All NPC cells are clearly EBV-infected. The virus is located in the nucleus of the tumour cells. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia is not a common event. Objectives: The aim of this study is to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies of Sudanese patients using EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in Situ hybridization (EBER-ISH). Study Design: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the National Center for ENT diseases and Head and Neck Surgery and the Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum City, Sudan. Subjects and Methods: Biopsies from 43 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were examined for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus using EBER-ISH. Ten normal samples were used to assess the presence of the virus in non cancer tissues. Results: Fifty three samples were examined for the presence of the virus by EBER-ISH, 43 biopsies were NPC and ten were normal. Histologically the cases were, 20 (46.5%), 20 (46.5%) and 3 (7%) of the biopsies were classified as WHO types II, III and mixed type II and III, respectively; there were no cases of type I NPC. All nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies (100%) were positive for EBER1 in almost all carcinoma cells with focal and intense dark-blue staining limited to the nucleus; no hybridization was observed in the cytoplasm. No hybridization was observed in all ten non cancer tissues. Conclusion: All NPC cells are clearly EBV-infected. The virus is located in the nucleus of the tumour cells. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia is not a common event.

KEYWORDS
EBV, NPC, Sudan, ISH, EBER

Cite this paper
Adam, A. , Abdullah, N. , El Hassan, L. , Elamin, E. , Ibrahim, M. and El Hassan, A. (2014) Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Sudanese by in Situ Hybridization. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 5, 517-522. doi: 10.4236/jct.2014.56059.
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