OJAppS  Vol.4 No.6 , May 2014
Reading Performance and Academic Achievement in Early Childhood Bilingual and Monolinguals
Abstract: Relationship between reading performance and academic achievement is theoretically predictable. However, this relationship could be higher among early childhood bilingual (ECBL) students than monolingual peers. For evaluating this claim, two groups of randomly selected female second graders (150 Farsi speaking and 150 Farsi and Turkish speaking) were tested and compared on these characteristics. The measures used were Kormi-Nouri and associates’ tests of reading performance. Moreover, academic achievement was defined to be the average of scores obtained by students at their final school exams in Math, Science and Farsi. Analysis of regression was then performed to determine which construct served as the best predictor of academic achievement in both groups. Based on the results, ECBL girls were superior to their monolingual (ML) counterparts in all three areas. Findings also show that reading performance was a strong predictor of school achievement for both groups.
Cite this paper: Seadatee-Shamir, A. and Siavoshi, Z. (2014) Reading Performance and Academic Achievement in Early Childhood Bilingual and Monolinguals. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 4, 347-353. doi: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.46031.

[1]   Thorn, A.S.C. and Gathercole, S.E. (1999) Language-Specific Knowledge and Short-Term Memory in Bilingual and Non-Bilingual Children. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52A, 303-324.

[2]   DeJong, P.F. (1998) Working Memory Deficits of Reading Disabled Children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 70, 75-96.

[3]   Siegel, L.S. and Ryan, E.B. (1988) Development of Grammatical-Sensitivity, Phonological and Short-Term Memory Skills in Normally Achieving and Subtypes of Learning Disabled Children. Developmental Psychology, 24, 28-37.

[4]   Swanson, H.L. (1989) Verbal Coding Deficits in Learning-Disabled Readers: A Multiple Stage Model. Educational Psychology Review, 1, 235-277.

[5]   Crain, S., McKee, C. and Emiliani, M. (1990) Visiting Relatives in Italy. In: Frazier, L. and Villiers, J.D., Eds., Language Processing and Language Acquisition, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 335-356.

[6]   Stanovich, K.E. and Siegel, L.S. (1994) Phenotypic Performance Profile of Children with Reading Disabilities: A Regression-Based Test of the Phonological-Core Variable-Difference Model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 24-53.

[7]   Bialystok, E. and Shapero, D. (2005) Ambiguous Benefits: The Effect of Bilingualism on Reversing Ambiguous Figures. Developmental Science, 8, 595-604.

[8]   Carlson, S.M. and Meltzoff, A.N. (2008) Bilingual Experience and Executive Functioning in Young Children. Developmental Science, 11, 282-298.

[9]   Martin-Rhee, M.M. and Bialystok, E. (2008) The Development of Two Types of Inhibitory Control in Monolingual and Bilingual Children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 81-93.

[10]   Bialystok, E. (1988) Levels of Bilingualism and Levels of Linguistic Awareness. Developmental Psychology, 24, 560-567.

[11]   Bialystok, E. (1997) Effects of Bilingualism and Illiteracy on Children’s Emerging Concepts of Print. Developmental Psychology, 33, 429-440.

[12]   Schwartz, M., Geva, E., Share, D. and Leikin, M. (2007) Learning to Read in English as a Third Language: The Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Phonological Processing Skills. Written Language and Literacy, 10, 25-52.

[13]   Pearson, B. (2007) Social Factors in Childhood Bilingualism in the United States. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 399-410.

[14]   Fontroura, H. and Siegel, L.S. (1995) Reading, Syntactic and Working Memory Skills of Bilingual Portuguese-English Canadian Children. Reading and Writing, 7, 139-153.

[15]   Gathercole, S.E., Alloway, T.P., Willis, C. and Adams, A.-M. (2006) Working Memory in Children with Reading Disabilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93, 265-281.

[16]   Gropper, R.J. and Tannock, R. (2009) A Pilot Study of Working Memory and Academic Achievement in College Students with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 12, 574-581.

[17]   Moehara, Y. and Saitos, S. (2007) The Relationship between Processing and Storage in Working Memory Span: Not Two Sides of the Same Coin. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 212-228.

[18]   Andersson, U. and Lyxell, B. (2007) Working Memory Deficit in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: A General or Specific Deficit? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 96, 197-228.

[19]   Alloway, T.P. and Alloway, R.G. (2010) Investigating the Predictive Roles of Working Memory and IQ in Academic Attainment. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 20-29.

[20]   Alloway, T.P. (2009) Working Memory, but Not IQ, Predicts Subsequent Learning in Children with Learning Difficulties. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25, 92-98.

[21]   Gathercole, S.E., Hitch, G.J., Service, E. and Martin, A.J. (1997) Short-Term Memory and New Word Learning in Children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 966-979.

[22]   Swanson, H.L. and O’Connor, R. (2009) The Role of Working Memory and Fluency Practice on the Reading Comprehension of Students Who Are Dysfluent Readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 548-575.

[23]   Girbau, D. and Schwartz, R.G. (2008) Phonological Working Memory in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Specific Language Impairment. Journal of Communication Disorders, 41, 124-145.

[24]   Siegel, L.S. (1988) Evidence That IQ Scores Are Irrelevant to the Definition and Analysis of Reading Disability. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 42, 201-215.

[25]   Ferrari, M. and Palladino, P. (2007) Foreign Language Learning Difficulties in Italian Children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 256-269.

[26]   Carlson, S.M. and Meltzoff, A.N. (2008) Bilingual Experience and Executive Functioning in Young Children. Developmental Science, 11, 282-298.

[27]   Bialystok, E. and Feng, X. (2008) Language Proficiency and Its Implications for Monolingual and Bilingual Children. Guildford Press, New York.

[28]   Kohnert, K.J. and Bates, E. (2006) Balancing Bilinguals II: Lexical Comprehension and Cognitive Processing in Children Learning Spanish and English. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 347-359.

[29]   Perfetti, C.A. and Liu, Y. (2005) Orthography to Phonology and Meaning Comparisons across and within Writing Systems. Reading and Writing, 18, 193-210.

[30]   Kohnert, K., Yim, D., Nett, K., Kan, P.F. and Duran, L. (2005) Intervention with Linguistically Diverse Preschool Children: A Focus on Developing Home Language(s). Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 36, 251-263.