functioning is influenced by the affective state. The literature contains
several references to the possibility that valence and arousal have separable
influences on attention. There are several methods of inducing affective state
but the most popular are by music and video clips. The latter are more vivid
and stimulate several sensory systems, leading to the hypothesis that a
stronger effect will result when using video clips for the induction of
affective state. Both methods have been used in many studies in the past but
their different contributions have never really been tested. Thus the aim of
the present study is to systematically establish or refute the assumption that
video clips are the stronger tool for affect induction. In order to test this
hypothesis a study was conducted in which 194 subjects participated in four
groups. Positive and negative affect conditions were induced by validated music
and video clips. The results established the validity of the hypothesis. The
results should be applied in cognitive research testing the relations between
induced affect and cognitive abilities in order to determine whether the effect
is replicated when the cognitive abilities are tested.
Cite this paper
Lazar, J. & Pearlman-Avnion, S. (2014). Effect of Affect Induction Method on Emotional Valence and Arousal. Psychology, 5,
595-601. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.57070
 Bradley, M. M., Codispoti, M., & Lang, P. J. (2006). A Multi-Process Account of Startle Modulation during Affective Perception. Psychophysiology, 43, 486-497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2006.00412.x
 Carlson, N. R. (2012). Physiology of Behavior (11th ed.). London: Pearson.
 Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1988). Mood and Mundane: Relations between Daily Life Events and Self-Reported Mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 296-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1246
 Eich, E., Ng, J. T., Macaulay, D. P. A. D., Percy, A. D., & Grebneva, I. (2007). Combining Music with Thought to Change Mood. Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment, 124-136.
 Eysenck, M. W. (1993). Principles of Cognitive Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
 Gasper, K., & Clore, G. L. (2002). Attending to the Big Picture: Mood and Global versus Local Processing of Visual Information. Psychological Science, 13, 34-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00406
 Gibbon, J. (1977). Scalar Expectancy Theory and Weber’s Law in Animal Timing. Psychological Review, 84, 279-325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.3.279
 Gibbon, J. (1991). Origins of Scalar Timing. Learning and Motivation, 22, 3-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0023-9690(91)90015-Z
 Goldstone, S., & Lhamon, W. T. (1974). Studies of Auditory-Visual Differences in Human Time Judgment: I. Sounds are Judged Longer than Lights. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 39, 63-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.19126.96.36.199
 Huber, F., Beckmann, S. C., & Herrmann, A. (2004). Means-End Analysis: Does the Affective State Influence Information Processing Style? Psychology & Marketing, 21, 715-737. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.20026
 Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., & Jessell, T. M. (2013). Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill.
 Nadel, L., & Jacobs, W. J. (1998). Traumatic Memory Is Special. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 154-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.ep10836842
 Lang, P. J., Davis, M., & Ohman, A. (2000). Fear and Anxiety: Animal Models and Human Cognitive Psychophysiology. Journal of Affective Disorders, 61, 137-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00343-8
 Lazar, J. N. (2012). Affect and Attention. Saarbrücken: LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
 Lazar, J., Kaplan, O., Sternberg, T., & Lubow, R. E. (2012). Positive and Negative Affect Produce Opposing Task-Irrelevant Stimulus Preexposure Effects. Emotion, 12, 591-604.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024867
 Shachar, K. (2005). The Link between Self-Control, Social Support and Subjective Wellbeing of Teachers in Miftans. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Ramat Aviv: Tel-Aviv University.
 Schimmack, U. (2005). Response Latencies of Pleasure and Displeasure Ratings: Further Evidence for Mixed Feelings. Cognition & Emotion, 19, 671-691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699930541000020
 Stone, A. A. (1981). The Association between Perceptions of Daily Experiences and Self- and Spouse-Rated Mood. Journal of Research in Personality, 15, 510-522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(81)90047-7
 Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.523
 Watson, D., & Tellegen, A. (1985). Toward a Consensual Structure of Mood. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 219-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.219