IJOHNS  Vol.3 No.3 , May 2014
Experimental Studies on the Irradiation of Facial Bones in Animals: A Review
ABSTRACT

Introduction: Radiotherapy is often used to treat head and neck malignancies, with inevitable effects on the surrounding healthy tissues. We have reviewed the literature concerning the experimental irradiation of facial bones in animals. Materials and Methods: A PubMed search was performed to retrieve animal experiments on the irradiation of facial bones that were published between January 1992 and January 2012. The search terms were “irradiation facial bone” and “irradiation osteoradionecrosis”. Results: Thirty-six publications were included. The irradiation sources were Cobalt60, orthovoltage, 4 - 6 megavolt photons, and brachytherapy. The total dose varied between 8 - 60 Gy in single or multiple fractions. The literature presents a broad range of animal studies that differ in terms of the in vivo model, irradiation, observation period, and evaluation of results. Discussion: The different animal models used leave many questions unanswered. A detailed and standardized description of the methodology and results would facilitate the comparability of future studies.


Cite this paper
Poort, L. , Lethaus, B. , Böckmann, R. , Buurman, D. , Jong, J. , Hoebers, F. and Kessler, P. (2014) Experimental Studies on the Irradiation of Facial Bones in Animals: A Review. International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, 3, 113-127. doi: 10.4236/ijohns.2014.33022.
References
[1]   Verdonck, H.W., Meijer, G.J., Laurin, T., et al. (2007) Assessment of Vascularity in Irradiated and Nonirradiated Maxillary and Mandibular Minipig Alveolar Bone Using Laser Doppler Flowmetry. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 22, 774-778.

[2]   Tchanque-Fossuo, C.N., Monson, L.A., Farberg, A.S., et al. (2011) Dose-Response Effect of Human Equivalent Radiation in the Murine Mandible: Part II. A Biomechanical Assessment. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 128, 480e-487e.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e31822b67ae

[3]   Tchanque-Fossuo, C.N., Monson, L.A., Farberg, A.S., et al. (2011) Dose-Response Effect of Human Equivalent Radiation in the Murine Mandible: Part I. A Histomorphometric Assessment. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 128, 114-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e31821741d4

[4]   Cohen, M., Nishimura, I., Tamplen, M., et al. (2011) Animal Model of Radiogenic Bone Damage to Study Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis. American Journal of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery, 32, 291-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2010.06.001

[5]   Yachouh, J., Breton, P., Roux, J.P. and Goudot, P. (2010) Osteogenic Capacity of Vascularised Periosteum: An Experimental Study on Mandibular Irradiated Bone in Rabbits. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, 63, 2160-2167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2010.01.015

[6]   Zhang, W.B., Zheng, L.W., Chua, D. and Cheung, L.K. (2010) Bone Regeneration after Radiotherapy in an Animal Model. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 68, 2802-2809.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2010.04.024

[7]   Inyang, A.F., Schwarz, D.A., Jamali, A.M. and Buchman, S.R. (2010) Quantitative Histomorphometric Assessment of Regenerate Cellularity and Bone Quality in Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis after Radiation Therapy. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 21, 1438-1442.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181ec693f

[8]   Hosokawa, Y., Sakakura, Y., Tanaka, L., Okumura, K., Yajima, T. and Kaneko, M. (2007) Effects of Local and Whole Body Irradiation on Appearance of Osteoclasts during Wound Healing of Tooth Extraction Sockets in Rats. Journal of Radiation Research, 48, 273-280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1269/jrr.06069

[9]   Fregene, A., Jing, X.L., Monson, L.A. and Buchman, S.R. (2009) Alteration in Volumetric Bone Mineralization Density Gradation Patterns in Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Following Radiation Therapy. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 124, 1237-1244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181b5a42f

[10]   Liu, Y.X., Liu, G.C., Liu, Y.P. and Lin, X.J. (2010) Character of Distracted Bone in Irradiated Canine Mandibles and Electrophysiological Changes in the Inferior Alveolar Nerve. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 48, 115-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjoms.2009.03.013

[11]   Matsui, Y., Ohno, K., Michi, K. and Tachikawa, T. (1994) Histomorphometric Examination of Healing around Hydroxylapatite Implants in 60Co-Irradiated Bone. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 52, 167-172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0278-2391(94)90403-0

[12]   O’Donovan, D.A., Yeung, I., Zeman, V., Neligan, P.C., Pang, C.Y. and Forrest, C.R. (2001) Radiation-Induced Craniofacial Bone Growth Inhibition: Development of an Animal Model. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 12, 533-543.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001665-200111000-00006

[13]   Forrest, C.R., O’Donovan, D.A., Yeung, I., et al. (2002) Efficacy of Radioprotection in the Prevention of Radiation-Induced Craniofacial Bone Growth Inhibition. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 109, 1311-1324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006534-200204010-00015

[14]   Asikainen, P., Klemetti, E., Kotilainen, R., et al. (1998) Osseointegration of Dental Implants in Bone Irradiated with 40, 50 or 60 Gy Doses. An Experimental Study with Beagle Dogs. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 9, 20-25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0501.1998.090103.x

[15]   Brogniez, V., Nyssen-Behets, C., Grégoire, V., Reychler, H. and Lengelé, B. (2002) Implant Osseointegration in the Irradiated Mandible. A Comparative Study in Dogs with a Microradiographic and Histologic Assessment. Clinical Oral Implants Research, 13, 234-242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0501.2002.130302.x

[16]   Muhonen, A., Muhonen, J., Lindholm, T.C., et al. (2002) Osteodistraction of a Previously Irradiated Mandible with or without Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygenation: An Experimental Study in Rabbits. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 31, 519-524.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/ijom.2002.0257

[17]   Muhonen, A., Muhonen, J., Minn, H., et al. (2002) The Effects of Irradiation and Hyperbaric Oxygen on Bone Formation during Rabbit Mandibular Distraction. Archives of Oral Biology, 47, 701-707.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9969(02)00051-1

[18]   Muhonen, A., Peltomäki, T., Knuuti, J., Raitakari, O. and Happonen, R.P. (2002) Osteoblastic Activity of the Rabbit Temporomandibular Joint during Distraction Osteogenesis Assessed by [18F] Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 110, 144-148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PRS.0000163322.22436.3B

[19]   La Scala, G.C., O’Donovan, D.A., Yeung, I., et al. (2005) Radiation-Induced Craniofacial Bone Growth Inhibition: Efficacy of Cytoprotection Following a Fractionated Dose Regimen. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 115, 1973-1985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PRS.0000163322.22436.3B

[20]   Girod, A., Roger, T., Breton, P. and Bouletreau, P. (2005) Experimental Study of Mineralization in Mandibular Bone Distraction with Irradiation during the Consolidation Phase. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 33, 386-394.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2005.07.005

[21]   Shao, Z., Liu, B.L., Liu, Y.P., et al. (2006) Distraction Osteogenesis in the Irradiated Rabbit Mandible. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, 59, 181-187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2005.04.032

[22]   Clark, C.L., Strider, J., Hall, C., et al. (2006) Distraction Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rabbit Mandibles with Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 64, 589-593.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2005.12.027

[23]   Springer, I.N., Niehoff, P., Açil, Y., et al. (2008) BMP-2 and bFGF in an Irradiated Bone Model. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 36, 210-217.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2007.09.001

[24]   Niehoff, P., Springer, I.N., Açil, Y., et al. (2008) HDR Brachytherapy Irradiation of the Jaw—As a New Experimental Model of Radiogenic Bone Damage. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 36, 203-209.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2008.01.003

[25]   Fenner, M., Park, J., Schulz, N., et al. (2010) Validation of Histologic Changes Induced by External Irradiation in Mandibular Bone. An Experimental Animal Model. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, 38, 47-53.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2009.07.011

[26]   Williamson, R.A. (2007) An Experimental Study of the Use of Hyperbaric Oxygen to Reduce the Side Effects of Radiation Treatment for Malignant Disease. International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, 36, 533-540.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2007.03.003

[27]   Brasseur, M., Brogniez, V., Grégoire, V., et al. (2006) Effects of Irradiation on Bone Remodelling around Mandibular Implants: An Experimental Study in Dogs. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 35, 850-855.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2006.03.016

[28]   Gantous, A., Phillips, J.H., Catton, P. and Holmberg, D. (1994) Distraction Osteogenesis in the Irradiated Canine Mandible. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 93, 164-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006534-199401000-00025

[29]   Brogniez, V., D’Hoore, W., Gregoire, V., Munting, E. and Reychler, H. (2000) Implants Placed in an Irradiated Dog Mandible: A Morphometric Analysis. International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 15, 511-518.

[30]   Schon, R., Ohno, K., Kudo, M. and Michi, K. (1996) Peri-Implant Tissue Reaction in Bone Irradiated the Fifth Day after Implantation in Rabbits: Histologic and Histomorphometric Measurements. International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 11, 228-238.

[31]   Jegoux, F., Aguado, E., Cognet, R., et al. (2010) Alveolar Ridge Augmentation in Irradiated Rabbit Mandibles. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 93, 1519-1526.

[32]   Pinholt, E.M. and Kwon, P.H. (1992) The Effect of Therapeutic Radiation on Canine Alveolar Ridges Augmented with Hydroxylapatite. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 50, 250-254.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0278-2391(92)90321-P

[33]   Lorente, C.A., Song, B.Z. and Donoff, R.B. (1992) Healing of Bony Defects in the Irradiated and Unirradiated Rat Mandible. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 50, 1305-1309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0278-2391(92)90232-o

[34]   Klotch, D.W., Ganey, T., Greenburg, H. and Slater-Haase, A. (1996) Effects of Radiation Therapy on Reconstruction of Mandibular Defects with a Titanium Reconstruction Plate. Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, 114, 620-627.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0194-5998(96)70256-5

[35]   Tamplen, M., Trapp, K., Nishimura, I., et al. (2011) Standardized Analysis of Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis in a Rat Model. Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, 145, 404-410.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599811400576

[36]   Ubios, A.M., Piloni, M.J. and Cabrini, R.L. (1992) Mandibular Growth and Tooth Eruption after Localized X-Radiation. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 50, 153-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0278-2391(92)90361-3

 
 
Top