The purpose of this
quasi-experimental within-group study was to determine the impact of a teacher
administered All Children Experiencing Success, School-Wide Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports program on students’ measured externalizing behavior
categories and reading instructional levels. Third-grade, fourth-grade, and
fifth-grade students were identified at pretest with moderate (n = 18), mild (n = 22), and low (n = 46)
disruptive externalizing behaviors. Students participated for two school years
in this highly structured program designed to improve the culture, context, and
curriculum of the research elementary school. The null hypothesis was rejected
in the direction of student Universal Behavior Screen Category improvement at
posttest where following two school years of program intervention students
demonstrated moderate (n = 1), mild (n = 24), or low (n = 61) levels of externalizing behaviors with X2(2) = 17.40, p < .0001. Furthermore, null hypotheses for improved reading instructional
levels were rejected in the direction of significantly improved although below
grade level performance reading scores over time for students with moderate
externalizing behaviors where t(17) =
2.38, p < .01, and mild externalizing
behaviors where t(21) = 2.63, p < .01. The null hypothesis for
students with low externalizing behaviors reading instructional levels was also
rejected in the direction of significantly improved meets grade level
performance reading scores over time where t(45)
= 2.92, p < .003. Establishing
overarching behavior expectations that are clear, simple, easy to understand,
and focused supported a safe, respectable, and responsible school wide core
belief system. The goal was to reduce punishment and create a positive student
self-regulated behavior replacement school environment. Student deportment,
civility, and learning improvement may be expected when these proactive conditions
Cite this paper
Betts, G. , Hill, J. and Surface, J. (2014) Improving Behavior and Reading Levels: Students’ Response to Two Years of Participation in a Teacher Administered Elementary Level School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Program. Creative Education
, 533-541. doi: 10.4236/ce.2014.58063
 Arum, R. (2011). Improve Relationships to Improve Student Performance. Phi Delta Kappan, 93, 8-13.
 Baharudin, R., & Luster, T. (1998). Factors Related to the Quality of the Home Environment and Children’s Achievement. Journal of Family Issues, 19, 375-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251398019004002
 Bergman, A. B., Powers, J., & Pullen, M. L. (2010). The Survival Kit for the Elementary School Principal. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
 Browning-Wright, D., & Cook, C. (2011). All Children Experiencing Success. ACES Presented at Westside Community Schools, Omaha, NE.
 Chafouleas, S., Riley-Tillman, C. T., & Sugai, G. (2007). School-Based Behavioral Assessment; Informing Intervention and Instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools; Functional Behavioral Assessment. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 Dunlap, G., & Fox, L. (2009). Positive Behavior Support and Early Intervention. Handbook of Positive Behavior Support. New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.
 Durand, M. V., Hieneman, M., Clarke, S., & Zona, M. (2009). Optimistic Parenting: Hope and Help for Parents with Challenging Children. Handbook of Positive Behavior Support. New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media.
 Eamon, M. K. (2005). Social-Demographic, School, Neighborhood, and Parenting Influences on Academic Achievement of Latino Young Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 163-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-005-3214-x
 Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. (2011). The Continuum of Literacy Learning: A Guide to Teaching. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
 Fowler, D. (2011). School Discipline Feeds the “Pipeline to Prison.” Phi Delta Kappan, 93, 25-29.
 Gresham, F. M. (2004). Current Status and Future Directions of School-Based Behavioral Interventions. School Psychology Review, 33, 326-343.
 Grice, C. L., Hill, J. W., & Hayes, K. L. (2012). Do declining Neighborhood Economic Conditions Trump Hoped for School Renovation Renewal Benefit? Advances in Applied Sociology, 2, 102-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aasoci.2012.22014
 Hill, J. W., & Coufal, K. (2005). Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Retrospective Examination of Social Skills, Linguistics, and Student Outcomes. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 27, 33-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15257401050270010401
 Jeynes, W. H. (2002). Examining the Effects of Parental Absence on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents: The Challenge of Controlling for Family Income. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23, 189-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015790701554
 Marzano, R. J. (2007). The Art and Science of Teaching. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
 Scott, T., Anderson, C., Mancil, R., & Alter, P. (2011). Function-Based Supports for Individual Students in School Settings. Handbook of Positive Behavior Support. New York, NY: Springer.
 SEELS: Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study. (2005). US Department of Education. US Office of Special Education Programs. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office.
 Senge, P., Cambron-McCabe, N., Lucas, T., Smith, B., Dutton, J., & Kleiner, A. (2000). Schools That Learn: A Fifth Discipline Resource. New York, NY: Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.
 Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2002). The Evolution of Discipline Practices: School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 24, 23-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J019v24n01_03
 Tyrone (Age 16 Years), Hall, C. A., & Hill, J. W. (1998). “We ‘Gotta’ Skill to Help You Chill:” Impulse Control Rap. Reclaiming Children and Youth: Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 6, 227-228.
 Westside Community Schools Mission Statement. (2011). ACES Mission Statement. Presented at Westside Community Schools, Omaha, NE.