For domestic consumers in
the rural areas of northern Kenya, as in other developing countries, the
typical source of electrical supply is diesel generators. However, diesel
generators are associated with both CO2 emissions, which adversely
affect the environment and increase diesel fuel prices, which inflate the
prices of consumer goods. The Kenya government has taken steps towards
addressing this issue by proposing The Hybrid Mini-Grid Project, which involves
the installation of 3 MW of wind and solar energy systems in facilities with
existing diesel generators. However, this project has not yet been implemented.
As a contribution to this effort, this study proposes, simulates and analyzes
five different configurations of hybrid energy systems incorporating wind
energy, solar energy and battery storage to replace the stand-alone diesel
power systems servicing six remote villages in northern Kenya. If implemented,
the systems proposed here would reduce Kenya’s dependency on diesel fuel,
leading to reductions in its carbon footprint. This analysis confirms the
feasibility of these hybrid systems with many configurations being profitable.
A Multi-Attribute Trade-Off Analysis is employed to determine the best hybrid
system configuration option that would reduce diesel fuel consumption and jointly
minimize CO2 emissions and net present cost. This analysis
determined that a wind-diesel-battery configuration consisting of two 500 kW
turbines, 1200 kW diesel capacity and 95,040 Ah battery capacity is the best
option to replace a 3200 kW stand-alone diesel system providing electricity to
a village with a peak demand of 839 kW. It has the potential to reduce diesel
fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by up to 98.8%.
 Moner-Girona, M. (2008) A New Scheme for the Promotion of Renewable Energies in Developing Countries: The Renewable Energy Regulated Purchase Tariff. http://www.energy.eu/publications/LDNA23284ENC_002.pdf
 Trading Economics (2012) Pump Price for Diesel Fuel (US Dollar Per Liter) in Kenya. http://www.tradingeconomics.com/kenya/pump-price-for-diesel-fuel-us-dollar-perliter-wb-data.html
 The World Bank (2012) Data Kenya: World Development Indicators.
 International Energy Agency (2011) Energy for All: Financing Access for the Poor. Proceedings of the Energy for All Conference, Oslo, 10-11 October 2011, 1-52.
 Kianji, C.K. (2013) Kenya’s Energy Demand and the Role of Nuclear Energy in Future Energy Generation Mix. Presented at the Joint JAPAN-IAEA Nuclear Energy Management School, Tokai-Mura, Japan, 18 June 2012.
 Phaesun. (2013) Stand-Alone Solar Solutions, Hybrid Systems. http://www.phaesun.com/systems/references/rural-electrification/hybrid-systems.html
 The Republic of Kenya (2011) Scaling-Up Renewable Energy Program (SREP): Investment Plan for Kenya (Unpublished).http://www.renewableenergy.go.ke/downloads/policy-docs/
 Scaling-Up Renewable Energy Program Country Investment Plan, Kenya. Lecture Presented at SREP Sub-Committee Meeting, Cape Town, 21 June 2011.
 Alliance for Rural Electrification (2012) Hybrid Power Systems Based on Renewable Energies: A Suitable and CostCompetitive Solution for Rural Electrification. http://www.ruralelec.org/fileadmin/DATA/Documents/06_Publications/Position_papers/
 Rehman, S., Al-Hadhrami, M.L. and Mahbub, A.M. (2012) Feasibility Study of a Wind-PV-Diesel Hybrid Power System for a Village. Elsevier: Renewable Energy, 38, 258-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.06.028
 Nahid-Al-Masood, R., Mirza, J., Ahmed, A.H., Abedin, S.R., Deeba, F., Begum, H.M. and Chowdhury, A.H. (2011) Design of a Cost Effective Off-Grid Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System in an Island of Bangladesh. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 60, 312-315.
 Rehman, S., Ahmad, F., Shaahid, S.M., Shash, A., El-Amin, I.M., Al-Shehri, A.M. and Bakhashwain, J.M. (2011) Feasibility Study of Hybrid Retrofits to an Isolated Off-Grid Diesel Power Plant. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11, 635-653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2005.05.003
 Lukuyu, J.M. (2013) Design and Analysis of Hybrid Power System Options for Off-Grid Rural Electrification in Northern Kenya. B.Sc. Thesis, Smith College, Northampton.
 Tabors, R.D. and Hornby, R. (2005) The Use of Multi-Attribute Trade-Off Analysis in Strategic Planning for an Electric Distribution Utility: An Analysis of Abu Dhabi Distribution Company. Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Big Island, 3-6 January 2005, 61b. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.621
 Karapidakis, E.S. (2010) Wind Power Impact on Power System Dynamic Performance. In: Muyeen, S.M., Ed., Wind Power, INTECH, Croatia, 558.
 Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2013) Population and Housing Census. Constituency Population by Sex, Number of Households, Area and Density.http://www.knbs.or.ke/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=165:population-distribution-by
 Elliot, F. and Roth, E.A. (2005) As Pastoralists Settle: Social, Health, and Economic Consequences of the Pastoral Sedentarization in Marsabit District. Kluwer Academic, New York.
 Mbogho, M.S., Wekesa, C., Murage, D. and Toyoda, J. (1996) Economic Analysis of Supplying an Electro Village Using Alternative Electrical Power Sources. IEEE 4th AFRICON, 2, 968-971. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AFRCON.1996.563026
 Mwangangi, S., Koech, W., Akinala, J. and Omwega, T. (2010) Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Project Report for Proposed Two 250 KW Wind Turbines at Marsabit. http://www.kplc.co.ke/fileadmin/user_upload/Documents/ESIA/
 Mwangi, D. (2003) Kenya’s Electricity Demand Projections and Role of Geothermal Resource in National Power Development Plan. Eastern Africa Geothermal Market Acceleration Conference, Nairobi, 9-11 April 2003, 23-43.
 Ouma, C. (2011) Hybrid Energy System for Off-Grid Rural Electrification (Case Study Kenya). Ph.D. Thesis, Gotland University, Sweden.
 Oludhe, C. (2008) Assessment and Utilization of Wind Power in Kenya—A Review. Journal of Kenya Meteorological Society, 2, 39-52.
 Kamau, J.N., Kinyua, R. and Gathua, J.K. (2010) 6 Years of Wind Data for Marsabit, Kenya Average over 14 m/s at 100 m Hub Height; An Analysis of the Wind Energy Potential. Renewable Energy, 35, 1298-1302.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.10.008
 Apratim, R. (2012) Derivation of Surface Roughness and Capacity Factor from Wind Shear Characteristics. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 2, 348-355.
 McKahn, D. (2012) Bringing Extraterrestrial Radiation to the Plane of Array. Lecture presented at Smith College, Northampton, 11 September 2012.
 National Renewable Energy Laboratories (2005) Kenya Global Horizontal Solar Radiation [Image]. GIS Database.
 NASA (2012) Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy. Atmospheric Science Data Center Database.
 HOMER Energy (2013) Optimizing Clean Power Everywhere. Energy Modeling Software for Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.
 Rehman, S. and Al-Hadhrami, L.M. (2010) Study of a Solar PV/Diesel/Battery Hybrid Power System for a Remotely Located Population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 35, 4986-4995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.08.025
 The Kenya Government (2007) Kenya Vision 2030, a Globally Competitive and Prosperous Kenya. http://www.kilimo.go.ke/kilimo_docs/pdf/Kenya_VISION_2030-final.pdf
 Wikipedia (2013) Photovoltaics. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaics
 Vuorinen, A. (2007) Planning of National Power Systems. http://www.optimalpowersystems.com/stuff/planning_of_national_power_systems.pdf
 Wind Energy: The Facts (2013) Analytical Methods for the Prediction of the Long-Term Wind Regime at a Site. http://www.wind-energy-the-facts.org/analytical-methods-for-the-prediction-of-the-long-term-wind-regime-at-a-site.html