ACS  Vol.1 No.2 , April 2011
Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Eruption: Ice Nuclei and Particle Characterization
The Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption was an extraordinary event in that it led to widespread and unprecedented disruption to air travel over Europe – a region generally considered to be free from the hazards associated with volcanic eruptions, excluding the extreme south influenced by Mt. Etna. In situ measurements were performed at the research centre of the National Research Council (CNR) area of Bologna (44?31′ N; 11?20′ E), an urban background site, in order to contribute to knowledge concerning the impact of the volcanic emission.Aerosol size distributions measured with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC) show an increase in concentration of the accumulation and coarse fraction during the transit of the ash cloud, with respect to the subsequent period of the event, while particles smaller than 0.3 μm seem not to be affected by volcanic ash. Ice nuclei measured in the sampled air during and after the ash cloud transit, show an higher concentration during the ash cloud transit, with a ratio of about 1:110 with respect to the aerosol number concentration measured with the OPC.The elemental composition of aerosol particles, performed with SEM-EDX, gives about 30% of the inorganic coarse particles (geometric diameter larger than 1 μm) of volcanic origin on the 20 April. Si and Al concentrations result prevalently much higher than Ca and Fe ones. A large number of particles contained sulphur, indicating secondary processes of sulphate/sulphuric acid formation due to sulphur dioxide oxidation during transport in the volcanic plume.

Cite this paper
nullF. Belosi, G. Santachiara and F. Prodi, "Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Eruption: Ice Nuclei and Particle Characterization," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2011, pp. 48-54. doi: 10.4236/acs.2011.12005.
[1]   A. W. Woods, “Moist convection and the injection of volcanic ash into the atmosphere,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, 1993, pp. 17627-17636.

[2]   L. S. Glaze, S. M. Baloga, L. Wilson, “Transport of atmospheric water vapour by volcanic eruption columns,”Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 102, 1997, pp. 6099-6108.

[3]   G. C. Mayberry, W. I. Rose, G. J. S. Bluth, “Dynamics of the volcanic and meteorological clouds produced by the December 26, 1997, eruption of Soufrière Hillsvolcano, Montserrat,” W.I. In Druitt, T.; Young, S.; and Kokelaar, P., eds. The 1995-99eruptions of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, Vol. 21, 2002, pp. 539-555.

[4]   W. I. Rose, G. J. S. Bluth, I. M. Watson, “Ice in volcanic clouds: When and Where?” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on volcanic ash and aviation safety, OFCM, Washington, DC, Session 3, 2004, pp. 27-33.

[5]   L. S. Glaze, S. M. Baloga, L. Wilson, “ Transport of atmospheric water vapour by volcanic eruption columns,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 102, 1997, pp. 6099-6108.

[6]   T. Koop, B. Luo, A.Tsias, T. Peter, “Water activity as the determinant for homogeneous ice nucleation in aqueous solutions,” Nature, Vol. 406, 2000, pp. 611-614.

[7]   H. R. Pruppacher, J. D. Klett, “Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dord- recht, 1997, pp. 954.

[8]   J.Rosinski, “The role of natural and man-made ice-forming nuclei in the atmosphere,”Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, Vol.10, 1979, pp. 315-367.

[9]   W.Szyrmer, I.Zawadzki, “Biogenic and anthropogenic sources of ice-forming nuclei: a review,”Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 78,1997, pp. 209-228.

[10]   K. Isono, K. Komabayasi, A. Ono, “Volcanoes as a source of atmospheric ice nuclei,” Nature, Vol. 183, 1959, pp. 317-318.

[11]   P.V.Hobbs, C. M. Fullerton, G. C. Bluhm, “Ice nucleus storms in Hawaii,” Nature, Vol. 230, 1971, pp. 90-91.

[12]   T. Tanaka, “Ice nucleating activity and the mode of action of volcanic ash ejected from Mt.Usu in Hokkaido. -An improved method to remove hygroscopic materials collected on a membrane filter,” Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics, Vol. 31, 1980, pp.153-171.

[13]   S. Price, J C. Pales, “Ice nucleus counts and variation at 3.4 km and near sea level in Hawaii,” Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 92, 1964, pp. 207-221.

[14]   R.F. Pueschel, B. G. Mendonca, “Dispersion into the higher atmosphere of effluent during an eruption of Kilauea volcano,” Journal de Récherches atmosphériques, 1972, Vol. 6, pp. 439-446.

[15]   R. C. Schnell, A. C. Delany, “Airborne ice nuclei near an active volcano,” Nature, Vol. 264, 1976, pp. 535-536.

[16]   R. C. Schnell, R. F. Pueschel, D. L. Wellman, “Ice nucleus characteristics of Mount St.Helens effluents,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 87, No.C13, 1982, pp. 11109-11112.

[17]   A. J. Durant, R. A. Shaw, W. I. Rose, Y. Mi, G. G. J. Ernst, “Ice nucleation and overseeding of ice in volcanic clouds,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, No.D09206, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2007JD009064, 2008

[18]   M. Burton, G. Salerno, A. La Spina, A., A. Stefansson, H. S. Kaasalainen., “Gas composition and flux report. Institute of Earth Sciences: Eruption in Eyjafjallaj?kull 20 March to present,” available at: EYJO compiled, 2010.

[19]   S. A.Carn, A. J. Krueger, N. A. Krotkov, K.Yang, K. Evans, “Tracking volcanic sulfur dioxide clouds for aviation hazard mitigation”, Natural Hazards, Vol. 51, 2009, pp.325-343, doi:10.1007/s11069-008-9228-4, 2009.

[20]   G. Langer, J. Rodgers, “An experimental study of ice nuclei on membrane filters and other substrata,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol.14, 1975, pp. 560-571.

[21]   C. Gueymard, “Assessment of the accuracy and computing speed of simplified saturation vapour equations using a new reference dataset,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 32, 1993, pp. 1294-1300.

[22]   G. Santachiara, L. Di Matteo, F. Prodi, F. Belosi, “Atmospheric particles acting as Ice Forming Nuclei in different size ranges,” Atmospheric Research, Vol. 96, 2010, pp. 266-272.

[23]   H. Flentje, H. Claude, T. Elste, S. Gilge, U. K?hler, C. Plass-Dülmer, W. Steinbrecht, W. Thomas, A. Werner, W. Fricke, “The Eyjafjallaj?kull eruption in April 2010 – detection of volcanic plume using in-situ measurements, ozone sondes and lidar-ceilometer profiles,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 10, 2010, pp.10085-10092.

[24]   G. Pappalardo, I. Mattis, and the EARLINET team, “Dispersion and evolution of the Eyjafjallajokull ash plume over Europe: vertically resolved measurements with the European LIDAR network EARLINET ESA/EUMETSAT,”ESA/EUMETSAT Workshop on Volcanic Ash Monitoring, ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, May 26-27, 2010.

[25]   D. Brunner, “In-situ, lidar, sonde and aircraft observations of volcanic ash in Switzerland,” ESA/EUMETSAT Workshop on Volcanic Ash Monitoring, ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, May 26-27, 2010.

[26]   F. Prodi, G. Santachiara, V. Prodi, “A study of the effect of size on ice nucleation in the aerodynamic range of particles,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 21, 1982, pp. 945-952.

[27]   C. Rolf, M. Kr?mer, C. Schiller, “Ground based LIDAR observations of the Eyjafjalla ash cloud over Jülich, Germany,” International Aerosol Conference, Helsinki, 2010.

[28]   W. I. Rose, “Scavenging of volcanic aerosol by ash: atmospheric and volcanologic implications,” Geology, Vol. 5, 1977, pp. 621-624.

[29]   W. I. Rose, R. L. Chuan, R. D. Cadle, D. C. Wods, “Small particles in volcanic eruption clouds,”American Journal of Science, Vol. 280, 1980, pp. 671-696.

[30]   C. S. Witham, C. Oppenheimer, C. J. Horwell, “Volcanic ash-leachates: a review and recommenddations for sampling methods,” Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 141, 2005, pp. 299-326.