PSYCH  Vol.5 No.6 , April 2014
Examining the Relationship between Hope and Attachment: A Meta-Analysis

The authors report quantitative findings from a meta-analysis of studies investigating the relationship between attachment , grounded in theory developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth; and Snyder’s theoretical model of hope (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991; Snyder, 1994). Statistically significant results provide support for further investigation of clinical value of the attachment/hope dynamic as an effective heuristic for conceptualizing human development, behavior and the therapeutic process.

Cite this paper
Blake, J. & Norton, C. (2014). Examining the Relationship between Hope and Attachment: A Meta-Analysis. Psychology, 5, 556-565. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.56065.
[1]   Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

[2]   Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An Ethological Approach to Personality Development. American Psychologist, 46, 333-341.

[3]   Bangert-Drowns, R. L. (1997). Some Limiting Factors in Meta-Analysis. In W. J. Bukoski (Ed.), Meta-Analysis of Drug Abuse Prevention Programs. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 170 (pp. 234-250). Rockville: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

[4]   Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1988). Manual for the Beck Hopelessness Scale. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

[5]   Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss, Vol. 1: Attachment. Attachment and Loss. New York: Basic Books.

[6]   Chan, Y.-C., Chan, F., Ditchman, N., Phillips, B., & Chou, C. C. (2013). Evaluating Snyder’s Hope Theory as a Motivational Model of Participation and Life Satisfaction for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Path Analysis. Rehabilitation Research Policy and Education, 27, 171-185.

[7]   Chan, F., Tarvydas, V., Blalock, K., Strauser, D., & Atkins, B. J. (2009). Unifying and Elevating Rehabilitation Counseling Through Model-Driven, Diversity-Sensitive Evidence-Based Practice. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 52, 114-119.

[8]   Cheavens, J. S., Feldman, D. B., Gum, A., Michael, S. T., & Snyder, C. R. (2006). Hope Therapy in a Community Sample: A Pilot Investigation. Social Indicators Research, 77, 61-78.

[9]   Davidson, O. B., Feldman, D. B., & Margalit, M. (2012). A Focused Intervention for 1st-Year College Students: Promoting Hope, Sense of Coherence, and Self-Efficacy. The Journal of Psychology, 146, 333-352.

[10]   Diehl, M., Elnick, A. B., Bourbeau, L. S., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (1998). Adult Attachment Styles: Their Relations to Family Context and Personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1656-1669.

[11]   Dunn, D. S., & Elliott, T. R. (2008). The Place and Promise of Theory in Rehabilitation Psychology. Rehabilitation Psychology, 53, 254-267.

[12]   Fraley, R. C., Vicary, A. M., Brumbaugh, C. C., & Roisman, G. I. (2011). Patterns of Stability in Adult Attachment: An Empirical Test of Two Models of Continuity and Change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 974-992.

[13]   Gnilka, P. B., Ashby, J. S., & Noble, C. M. (2013). Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Counseling & Development, 91, 78-91.

[14]   Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic Love Conceptualized as an Attachment Process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.

[15]   Huedo-Medina, T. B., Sánchez-Meca, J., Marín-Martínez, F., & Botella, J. (2006). Assessing Heterogeneity in Meta-Analysis: Q Statistic or I2 Index? Psychological Methods, 11, 193-206.

[16]   Jankowski, P. J., & Sandage, S. J. (2011). Meditative Prayer, Hope, Adult Attachment, and Forgiveness: A Proposed Model. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3, 115-131.

[17]   Jiang, X. U., Huebner, E. S., & Hills, K. J. (2013). Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents’ Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope. Psychology in the Schools, 50, 340-352.

[18]   Kao, Y. C., Liu, Y. P., & Lu, C. W. (2012). Beck Hopelessness Scale: Exploring its Dimensionality in Patients with Schizophrenia. The Psychiatric Quarterly, 83, 241-255.

[19]   Lavy, S., & Littman-Ovadia, H. (2011). All You Need Is Love? Strengths Mediate the Negative Associations between Attachment Orientations and Life Satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1050-1055.

[20]   Livneh, H., & Sherwood, A. (1991). Application of Personality Theories and Counseling Strategies to Clients with Physical Disabilities. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69, 525-538.

[21]   Lopez, F., Mauricio, A., Gormley, B., Simko, T., & Berger, E. (2001). Adult Attachment Orientations and College Student Distress: The Mediating Role of Problem Coping Styles. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79, 459-464.

[22]   Lopez, S. J., & Snyder, C. R. (Eds.). (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[23]   Olney, M. F. (2009). Effective Counseling Methods for Rehabilitation Counselors: Motivational Interviewing and Solution-Focused Therapy. Rehabilitation Education, 23, 233-244.

[24]   Schiff, M., & Levit, S. (2009). Correlates of Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcomes among Israeli Female Methadone Patients. Research on Social Work Practice, 20, 380-390.

[25]   Shorey, H. S., Snyder, C. R., Yang, X. D., & Lewin, M. R. (2003). The Role of Hope as a Mediator in Recollected Parenting, Adult Attachment, and Mental Health. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22, 685-715.

[26]   Sim, T. N., & Yow, A. S. (2011). God Attachment, Mother Attachment, and Father Attachment in Early and Middle Adolescence. Journal of Religion and Health, 50, 264-278.

[27]   Simmons, B. L., Gooty, J., Nelson, D. L., & Little, L. M. (2009). Secure Attachment: Implications for Hope, Trust, Burnout, and Performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 233-247.

[28]   Simmons, B. L., Nelson, D. L., & Quick, J. C. (2003). Health for the Hopeful: A Study of Attachment Behavior in Home Health Care Nurses. International Journal of Stress Management, 10, 361-375.

[29]   Snyder, C. R. (1994). Psychology of Hope: You Can Get Here from There. New York: Free Press.

[30]   Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope Theory: Rainbows in the Mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249-275.

[31]   Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L. et al. (1991). The Will and the Ways: Development and Validation of an Individual-Differences Measure of Hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570-585.

[32]   Snyder, C. R., Lehman, K. A., Kluck, B., & Monsson, Y. (2006). Hope for Rehabilitation and Vice Versa. Rehabilitation Psychology, 51, 89-112.

[33]   Stock, W. A. (1994). Systematic Coding for Research Synthesis. In H. Cooper, & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), The Handbook of Research Synthesis (pp. 125-138). New York: Russell Sage.

[34]   Zeyrek, E. Y., Gencoz, F., Bergman, Y., & Lester, D. (2009). Suicidality, Problem-Solving Skills, Attachment Style, and Hopelessness in Turkish Students. Death Studies, 33, 815-827.