WJNS  Vol.4 No.2 , May 2014
Mast Cells: The Key to Multiple Sclerosis?
Author(s) Per Gøran Krüger*
ABSTRACT

Mast cells are present in high numbers in the border-zones of the multiple sclerosis-plaques. They are located in small clusters along capillaries and venules, and they are more abundant in females than in men. Mast cells can be stimulated to release specific mediators such as histamine, resulting in oedema formation, as well as proteases that may cause demyelination, by several different activation mechanisms. We hypothesize that a putative mast cell activation may be induced by diet factor(s) as well as long lasting mental stress that may lead to the release of catestatin, as well as ACTH released from the pituitary gland. Given a natural flux of mast cell recovery and activation, a putative phenomenon of massive release of mediators and “silent” reload periods may explain the relapsing-remitting phases of multiple sclerosis.


Cite this paper
Krüger, P. (2014) Mast Cells: The Key to Multiple Sclerosis?. World Journal of Neuroscience, 4, 120-124. doi: 10.4236/wjns.2014.42014.
References
[1]   Broman, T. (1947) Supravital Analysis of Disorders in the Cerebral Vascular Permeability. Two Cases of Multiple Sclerosis. Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Scandinavica, Supplementum, 45, 58-71.

[2]   Kermode, A.G., Tofts, P.S., Thompson, A.J., et al. (1990) Heterogeneity of Blood-Brain Barrier Changes in Multiple Sclerosis: An MRI Study. Neurology, 40, 229-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.40.2.229

[3]   Larsen, J.P., Aarli, J.A., Nyland, H. and Riise, T. (1984) Western Norway, a High-Risk Area for Multiple Sclerosis: A Prevalence/Incidence Study in the County of Hordaland. Neurology, 34, 1202-1207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.34.9.1202

[4]   Gronning, M. and Mellgren, S.I. (1985) Multiple Sclerosis in the Two Northern Most Counties of Norway. Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Scandinavica, Supplementum, 72, 321-327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1985.tb00878.x

[5]   Dick, G. (1976) Theaetiology of Multiple Sclerosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 69, 611-615.

[6]   Lauer, K. and Firnaber, W. (1992) Epidemiologic Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis. Versicherungsmedizin, 44, 125-130.

[7]   Swank, R.L. (1950) Multiple Sclerosis, a Correlation of Its Incidence with Dietary Fat. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 220, 421-430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000441-195022040-00011

[8]   Swank, R.L., Lersted, O., Strom, A. and Backer, J. (1952) Multiple Sclerosis in Rural Norway. The New England Journal of Medicine, 246, 721-728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM195205082461901

[9]   Lauer, K. (1989) Dietary Changes in Temporal Relation to Multiple Sclerosis in the Faroe Islands: An Evaluation of Literary Sources. Neuroepidemiology, 8, 200-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000110183

[10]   Bates D. (1990) Dietary Lipids and Multiple Sclerosis. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 41, 173-187.

[11]   Murell, T.G., Harbige, L.S. and Robinson, I.C. (1991) A Review of the Aetiology of Multiple Sclerosis: An Ecological Approach. Annals of Human Biology, 18, 95-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014469100001442

[12]   Malosse, D., Perron, H., Sasco, A. and Seigneurin, J.M. (1992) Correlation between Milk and Dairy Product Consumption and Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence: A Worldwide Study. Neuroepidemiology, 304-312.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000110946

[13]   Ben-ashlmomo, Y., Davey-Smith, G. and Marmot, M.G. (1992) Dietary Fat in the Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis: Has the Situation Been Adequately Assessed? Neuroepidemiology, 11, 214-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000110934

[14]   Malosse, D. and Perron, H. (1993) Correlation Analysis between Bovine Population, Other than Farm Animals, House Pets, and Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence. Neuroepidemiology, 12, 15-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000110295

[15]   Gorelick, P.B. (1989) Clues to the Mystery of Multiple Sclerosis. Postgraduate Medicine, 85, 125-128, 131-134.

[16]   Millar, J.H.D. (1971) Multiple Sclerosis, a Disease Acquired in Childhood. Charles C Thomas, Springfield.

[17]   Morris, J.A. (1990) The Age Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis: A Decision Theory Model. Medical Hypotheses, 32, 129-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-9877(90)90036-E

[18]   Delasnerie-Laupetre, N. and Alpertovitch, A. (1990) Childhood Infections in Multiple Sclerosis: A Study of North African-Born Patients Who Migrated to France. Neuroepidemiology, 9, 118-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000110760

[19]   Hader, W.J., Irvine, D.G. and Schiefer, H.B. (1990) A Cluster-Focus of Multiple Sclerosis at Henribourd, Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 17, 391-394.

[20]   Lindberg, C., Andersen, O., Vahlne, A., Dalton, M. and Runmarker, B. (1991) Epidemiological Investigation of the Association between Infectious Mononucleosis and Multiple Sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology, 10, 62-65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000110248

[21]   Riise, T. and Klauber, M.R. (1992) Relationship between the Degree of Individual Space-Time Clustering and Age at Onset of Disease among Multiple Sclerosis Patients. International Journal of Epidemiology, 21, 528-532.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/21.3.528

[22]   Dean, G. and Gray, R. (1990) Do Nurses and Doctors Have an Increased Risk of Developing Multiple Sclerosis? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 53, 899-902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.53.10.899

[23]   Waldeyer, W. (1875) Ueber Bindegewebszellen. Arch. Micros. Anat., 11, 176.

[24]   Ehrlich, P. (1878) Beitrage zur Theorie und Praxis der histologischen Farbung. Thesis, University of Leipzig, Leipzig.

[25]   Galli, S.J. and Lichtenstein, L.M. (1988) Biology of Mast Cells and Basophils. In: Allergy: Principles and Practice, Mosby, St. Louis, 106-134.

[26]   Krüger, P.G. and Nyfors, A. (1984) Phagocytosis by Mast Cells in Urticariapigmentosa. Acta Dermato-Venereologica (Stockh), 64, 373-377.

[27]   Kambayashi, T., Allenspach, E.J., Chang, J.T., Zou, T., Shoag, J.E., Reiner, S.L., Caton, A.J. and Koretzky, G.A. (2009) Inducible MHC Class II Expression by Mast Cells Supports Effector and Regulatory T-Cell Activation. Journal of Immunology, 182, 4686-4695. http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0803180

[28]   Enerback, L. (1986) Mast Cell Heterogeneity: The Evolution of the Concept of a Specific Mucosal Mast Cell. In: Befus, A.D., et al., Eds., Mast Cell Differentiation and Heterogeneity, Raven Press, New York, 1-26.

[29]   Bochner, B.S., Charlesworth, E.N., Lichtenstein, L.M., Derse, C.P., Gillis, S., Dinarello, C.A. and Schleimer, R.P. (1990) Interleukin-1 Is Released at Sites of Human Cutaneous Allergic Reactions. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 86, 830-839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(05)80143-5

[30]   Krüger, P.G., Aas, P., Onarheim, J. and Helle, K.B. (1982) Neurotensin-Induced Release of Histamine from Rat Mast Cells in Vitro. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 114, 467-469. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1982.tb07011.x

[31]   Church, M.K., El-Lati, S. and Caulfield, J.P. (1991) Neuropeptide-Induced Secretion from Human Skin Mast Cells. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 94, 310-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000235393

[32]   Ali, H., Leung, K.B.P., Pearce, F.L., Hayes, N.A. and Foreman, J.C. (1986) Comparison of the Histamine-Releasing Action of Substance P on Mast Cells and Basophils from Different Species and Tissues. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 79, 413-418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000234011

[33]   Krüger, P.G. and Lagunoff, D. (1981) Mast Cell Restoration. A Study of the Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells after Depletion with Polymyxin B. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, 65, 278-290.

[34]   Dropp, J.J. (1979) Mast Cells in the Human Brain. Acta Anatomica (Basel), 105, 505-513.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000145157

[35]   Neumann, J. (1890) über das Vorkommen der sogenannten “Mastzellen” bei pathologishen Veranderung des Gehirns. Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medicin, 122, 378-380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01884453

[36]   Olsson, Y. (1974) Mast Cells in Plaques of Multiple Sclerosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 50, 611-618.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1974.tb02806.x

[37]   Thoms, R., Weiner, H.L. and Johnson, D. (1990) Identification of IgE-Positive Cells and Mast Cells in Frozen Sections of Multiple Sclerosis Brains. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 30, 167-177.

[38]   Theoharides, T.C. 1990) Mast Cells: The Immune Gate to the Brain. Life Sciences, 46, 607-617.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(90)90129-F

[39]   Krüger, P.G., B, L., Myhr, K.M., Karlsen, A.E., Taule, A., Nyland, H.I. and Mork, S. (1990) Mast Cells and Multiple Sclerosis: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study of Mast Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Emphasizing Staining Procedures. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 81, 31-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1990.tb00927.x

[40]   Ibrahim, M.Z.M., Reder, A.T., Lawand, R., Takash, W. and Sallouh-Khatib, S. (1996) The Mast Cells of the Multiple Sclerosis Brain. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 70, 131-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-5728(96)00102-6

[41]   Krüger, P.G. (2001) Mast Cells and Multiple Sclerosis: A Quantitative Analysis. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 27, 275-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0305-1846.2001.00331.x

[42]   Krüger, P.G. and Mork, S. (2012) Mast Cells and Multiple Sclerosis in Females and Males. World Journal of Neuroscience, 2, 145-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2012.23022

[43]   Orton, S.M., Herrera, B.M., Yee, I.M., Valdar, W., Ramagopalan, S.V., Sadovnick, A.D. and Ebers, G.C. (2006) Sex Ratio of Multiple Sclerosis in Canada, a Longitudinal Study. Lancet Neurology, 5, 932-936.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70581-6

[44]   Rozniecki, J.J., Hauser, S.L., Stein, M., Lincoln, R. and Theoharides, T.C. (1995) Elevated Mast Cell Tryptase in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Annals of Neurology, 37, 63-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.410370112

[45]   Johnson, D., Seeldrayers, P.A. and Weiner, H.L. (1988) The Role of Mast Cells in Demyelination. I Myelin Proteins Are Degraded by Mast Cell Proteases and Myelin Basic Protein and P2 Can Stimulate Mast Cell Degranulation. Brain Research, 444, 195-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(88)90929-8

[46]   Grytten, N., Glad, S.B., Aarseth, J.H., Nyland, H., Midgard, R. and Myhr, K.M. (2006) A 50-Year Follow-Up of the Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Hordaland County, Norway. Neurology, 66, 182-186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000195549.95448.b9

[47]   Gross, M. (2010) Piercing Together the Causes of Lives Torn Apart. Oxford Today, 22, 20-21.

[48]   Jasani, B., Kreil, G., Mackler, B.F. and Stanworth, D.R. (1979) Further Studies on the Structural Requirements for Polypeptide-Mediated Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Biochemical Journal, 181, 623-632.

[49]   Krüger, P.G., Mahata, S.K. and Helle, K.B. (2003) Catestatin (CgA344-364) Stimulates Rat Mast Cell Release of Histamine in a Manner Comparable to Mastoparan and Other Cationic Charged Neuropeptides. Regulatory Peptides, 114, 29-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-0115(03)00069-7

[50]   Wilson, L.M. and Baldwin, A.L. (1999) Environmental Stress Causes Mast Cell Degranulation, Endothelial Changes, and Edema in the Rat Intestinal Mucosa. Microcirculation, 6, 189-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/725310748

[51]   Hauser, R. and Calafat, A.M. (2005) Phthalates and Human Health. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62, 806-818. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.2004.017590

[52]   Nakamura, R., Teshima, R. and Sawada, J.I. (2002) Effect of Dialkyl Phthalates on the Degranulation and Ca2+ Response of RBL-2H3 Mast Cells. Immunology Letters, 80, 119-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2478(01)00318-2

 
 
Top