In this article, there are given results of comparative studying of efficiency of surgical and conservative treatment of 277 patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis. The effectiveness of the surgical treatment of the main group of patients against the background of chemotherapy with anti-TB chemotherapy with the drugs of the reserve line has been compared with two control groups: Group I—Surgical intervention was implemented with drugs of the first line, Group II—Chemotherapy was conducted with anti-TB drugs of the second line without surgical intervention. Treatment outcomes in three groups were stated after cohort investigation, and following results were obtained: Effectiveness of surgical treatment of patients of the main group with MDR TB treated with anti-TB drugs of the second line constituted 98.0% versus 53.7% in the Group II. Effectiveness of conservative treatment of patients in III (control) Group constituted 74.4%. Analysis of results obtained showed that the outcomes in the main group after regimen completed were higher by 1.8 times than in patients operated against the background of treatment with the drugs of the first line and by 1.3 times higher than effectiveness in patients in the Group III (P < 0.01). Effectiveness of the treatment in the Group II was obtained through implementation of collapse-surgical interventions. In this article, the statistical program STAT 10 was applied.
 Khomenko, A.G., Chukanova, V.I. and Korneyev, А.А. (1996) In Russian: Effectiveness of Chemotherapy of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Drug-Resistant Mycobacteria (Efficiency of Chemotherapy of Tuberculosis of Lungs with Multi Drug Mykobakteria. Journal of the Problems of Tuberculosis and of Lungs Diseases, 6, 42- 44.
 Dorozhkova, I.R. (1998) In Russian: Problems of Drug Resistance of Mycobacteria under Conditions of Up-Today Epidemiological Situation (The problems of Medicinal Stability of a Mikobakteriya in the Conditions of a Modern Epidemiological Situation. International Conference on Control of Tuberculosis and Y Congress of Phthisiaters of Kazakhstan, Almaty, 126.
 Tkachenko, S.O. and Obodzinskij, V.N. (2003) In Russian: Causes of Non-Effectiveness of Treatment of the Patients with Newly Detected Pulmonary Tuberculosis (The Principles Not Efficiency of Treatment of Patients with for the First Time Revealed Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis Today. Materials of the Russian Congress YII of Phthisiaters, Moskow, 249.
 Dilmagambetov, D.S. (2002) In Russian: Clinics, Diagnostics and Treatment of Newly Detected Tuberculosis of Breathing Organs at Presence of Primary Drug Resistance of Tuberculosis Mycobacteria (Clinic, Diagnostics and Treatment for the First Time the Revealed Patients with Tuberculosis of Respiratory Organs with Primary Drugs Resistance of Mykobakteria of Tuberculosis: Abstract of PhD.: 23.04.02. 24). Almaty, 24.
 Ismailov, S.S. and Dautova, K.M. (2001) In Russian: Effectiveness of the Anti-TB Drugs of the Third Line for Treatment of Polyresistant Chronic Tuberculosis (Efficiency of Reserve Preparations in Treatment of Polyresistant Chronic of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Up-Today Principles of Treatment and Monitoring of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (Modern Principles of Treatment and Monitoring of Multiresistant Tuberculosis). Almaty Совр, Almaty, 86-91.
 Khomenko, A.G., Mishin, V.Y. and Chukanova, V.I., et al. (1999) In Russian: Diagnostics, Clinics and Tactics of Treatment of Acute Progressing Tuberculosis Forms of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Up-Today Conditions (Diagnostics, Clinic and Treatment Tactics the Extensive of Forms of Tuberculosis in Modern Epidemiological Conditions. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 22-26.
 Dzhunusbekov, A.D. (1964) In Russian: Resections of Lungs in Patients with Drug Resistance of Tuberculosis Mycobacteria (The Resection of Lungs at Patients with Medicinal Stability of Mykobakteria of Tuberculosis: Abstract of PhD.: 21.10.64). Moscow, 19.
 Frolov, G.A., Popkova, N.L. and Kalashnikov, A.V. (2002) Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Drug Resistance (The Results of Surgical Treatment of Patients with Tuberculosis of Lungs with Drugs Resistant). The Problems of Tuberculosis and of Lungs Diseases, 15-18.
 Streltsov, V.P. and Chefranov, V.S. (1979) Ways of Enhancement of Effectiveness of Surgical Treatment for Patients with Advanced Forms of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (The Ways of Increase of Efficiency of Surgical Treatment of Patients with Widespread Forms of Pulmonary Tuberculosis). In: Up-Today Methods of Detection and Elimination of Tuberculosis Infection Sources (Modern Methods of Detection and Elimination of Sources of Infection of Tuberculosis), Мoscow, 131-133.
 Aliyev, A.A. (1987) Outcomes of Surgical Treatment in Patients with Advanced (Heavy) Forms of Pulmonary Tuberculosis over Last Five Years. In: Collection Book: Materials of IY Caucasian Congress of Phthisiaters, Baku, 125-126.