one of the riparian countries within basins of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers in the
Middle East region. The region is currently facing water shortage problems due
to the increase of the demand and climate changes. In the present study,
average monthly water flow measurements for 15 stream flow gaging stations
within basins of these rivers in Iraq with population growth rate data in some
of its part were used to evaluate the reality of the current situation and
future challenges of water availability and demand in Iraq. The results showed
that Iraq receives annually 70.92 km3 of water 45.4 and 25.52 km3 from River Tigris and Euphrates respectively. An amount of 18.04 km3 of the Tigris water comes from Turkey while 27.36 km3 is supplied by
its tributaries inside Iraq. The whole amount of water in the Euphrates Rivers
comes outside the Iraqi borders. Annual decrease of the water inflow is 0.1335
km3·year-1 for Tigris and 0.245 km3·year-1 for Euphrates. This implies that the annual percentage reduction of inflow
rates for the two rivers is 0.294% and 0.960%, respectively. Iraq consumes
annually 88.89% (63.05 km3) of incoming water from the two rivers,
where about 60.43% and 39.57% are from Rivers Tigris and Euphrates
respectively. Water demand increases annually by 1.002 km3, of which
0.5271 km3 and 0.475 km3 are within Tigris and Euphrates
basins respectively. The average water demand in 2020 will increase to 42.844
km3·year-1 for Tigris basin and for Euphrates 29.225 km3·year-1 (total 72.069 km3·year-1), while water availability will
decrease to 63.46 km3·year-1. This means that the overall
water shortage will be restricted to 8.61 km3.
Cite this paper
Issa, I. , Al-Ansari, N. , Sherwany, G. and Knutsson, S. (2014) Expected Future of Water Resources within Tigris-Euphrates Rivers Basin, Iraq. Journal of Water Resource and Protection
, 421-432. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.65042
 Naff, T. (1994) Conflict and Water Use in the Middle East. In: Rogers, P. and Lydon, P., Eds., Water in the Arab World: Perspectives and Prognoses, Harvard University Press, Boston, 253-284.
 Al-Ansari, N.A. (1998) Water Resources in the Arab Countries: Problems and Possible Solutions. UNESCO International Conference on Water: A Looming Crisis, Paris, 367-376.
 Al-Ansari, N.A. (2013) Management of Water Resources in Iraq: Perspectives and Prognoses. Journal of Engineering, 5, 667-684. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/eng.2013.58080
 Altinbilek, D. (2004) Development and Management of the Euphrates-Tigris Basin. Water Resources Development, 20, 15-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07900620310001635584
 World Bank (2006) Iraq: Country Water Resources, Assistance Strategy: Addressing Major Threats to People’s Livelihoods. Report No. 36297-IQ, 1-97.
 Droogers, P., Immerzeel, W.W., Terink, W., Hoogeveen, J., Bierkens, M.F.P., van Beek, L.P.H. and Debele, B. (2012) Water Resources Trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 3101-3114. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-16-3101-2012
 Voss, K.A., Famiglietti, J.S., Lo, M., de Linage, C., Rodell, M. and Swenson, S.C. (2013) Groundwater Depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Trans Boundary WATER Management in the Tigris-Euphrates Western Iran Region. Water Resource Research, 49, 904-914. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20078
 UNEP (2001) The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem. Early Warning and Assessment Technical Report no. 3, UNEP/DEWA/TR.01-3 (Geneva: UNEP).
 Iraqi Ministry of Water Resources “Water Resources, Mosul Dam”. http://www.mowr.gov.iq/cwaterresourceview.php?id=54
 Al-Ansari, N.A. and Knutsson, S. (2011) Toward Prudent Management of Water Resources in Iraq. Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, 1, 53-67.
 Al-Ansari, N.A., Sayfy, A., Al-Sinawi, G.T. and Ovanessian, A.A. (1986) Evaluation of the Water Quality for the Lower Reaches of River Tigris Using Multivariate Analysis. Journal of Water Resources, 5, 173-187.
 Najib, Y.E. (1980) Characteristics of Tigris River at Mosul. MSc Thesis, College of Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul.
 Biedler, M. (2004) Hydropolitics of the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin with Implications for the European Union. CERIS Centre Européen de Recherche Internationale et Stratégique, Research Papers No. 1, 1-44.
 Al-Ansari, N.A., Barazanji, A., Al-Jabari, M. and Gayara, A. (1981) Geological Investigation of Mosul Dam Site. Report submitted to the Ministry of Irrigation, Iraq, 41p.
 Al-Ansari, N.A., Assad, N., Walling, D.E. and Hussan, S.A. (1988) The Suspended Sediment Discharges of River Euphrates at Haditha, Iraq. Geografisca Annaler, 79A, 203-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/521072
 Al-Shahrabaly, K.M. (1989) Rivers Water Discharges Passing in the Main Gaging-Stations on the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers. Iraq Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, 119 p.
 Saleh, D.K. (2010) Stream Gage Descriptions and Stream Flow Statistics for Sites in the Tigris River and Euphrates River Basins, Iraq. US Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Data series 540, 1-154. http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/540/pdf/ds540.pdf
 City Population (2013) Population Statistics for Countries, Administrative Areas, Cities and Agglomerations—Inter active Maps—Charts. http://www.citypopulation.de/Iraq.html#Stadt_alpha.
 Country Fact Sheet, AQUASTAT Survey Iraq. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/cf/readPdf.html?f=CF_IRQ_en.pdf
 Kliot, N. (1994) Water Resources and Conflict in the Middle-East. Routledge, London.
 Kolars, J. (1994) Problems of International River Management: The Case of the Euphrates. In: Biswas, A.K., Ed., International Water of Middle East from Euphrates-Tigris to Nile. Water Resources Management Series 2, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 45-94.
 Altinbilek, H.D. (1997) Water and Land Resources Development in Southeastern Turkey. Journal of Water Resources Development, 13, 311-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07900629749719
 Beaumont, P. (1998) Restructuring of Water Usage in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin: The Impact of Modern Water Management Policies. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Bulletin Series, 103, 168-186.
 United Nations (2010) Water Resources Management White Paper. United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, United Nations Country Team in Iraq, 20 p.