ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop a method for predicting the psychological states of spectators watching professional baseball games at a stadium. This method includes a real time measurement of instantaneous heart rate (i.e., the inverse of the RR interval) without preventing the subject from watching the game and a mathematical procedure used to predict moment by moment psychological states by correlating the degree of a psychological state with the strength of heart rate response, defined as the mean deviation of heart rate variability from a linear regression line from 5 sec before to 25 sec after an event during a baseball game. We recorded the instantaneous heart rates of 10 subjects (total of 27 cases) while they watched Japanese professional baseball games at a stadium and had them subjectively rate the degree of their psychological states in an after-event interview. We identified three psychological states (happiness, excitement, and vigor) whose strength can be predicted from the strength of heart rate response. Analysis of the measured data clarified that heart rate response had a significant correlation with the subjective rating of the intensity of happiness (r = 0.56, p < 0.0001), vigor (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001), and excitement (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001).
Cite this paper
Yoshino, K. , Matsumoto, S. , Someya, E. and Kitajima, M. (2011) Happiness and heart rate response: a case of fan services at japanese professional baseball games. Natural Science, 3, 255-258. doi: 10.4236/ns.2011.33032.
 Caro, L.M. and Garcia, J.A.M. (2007) Cognitive-affec- tive model of consumer satisfaction. An exploratory study within the framework of a sporting event. Journal of Business Research, 60, 108-114.
 Leeuwen, L.V., Quick, S. and Daniel, K. (2002) The sport spectator satisfaction model: A conceptual framework for understanding the satisfaction of spectators. Sport Management Review, 5, 99-128.
 Bower, G. (1981) Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129-148.
 DeVries, M. (1992) The experience of psychopathology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 Akselrod, S., Gordon, D., Ubel, F.A., Shannon, D.C., Barger, A.C., and Cohen, R.J. (1981) Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuation: A quantitative probe of beat-to-beat cardiovascular control. Science, 213, 220-222.
 Andreassi, J.L. (2006) Psychophysiology. Human behavior & physiological response (5th ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey.
 Murata, J., Matsukawa, K., Shimizu, J., Matsumoto, M., Wada, T. and Ninomiya, I. (1999) Effects of mental stress on cardiac and motor rhythms. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 75, 32-37.
 Ohsuga, M., Shimono, F. and Genno, H. (2001) Assessment of phasic work stress using autonomic indices. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 40, 211-220.
 Yoshino, K., Edamatsu, M., Yoshida, M. and Matsuoka, K. (2007) An algorithm for detecting startle state based on physiological signals. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39, 308-312. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2006.08.003
 McNair, D.M., Lorr, M. and Droppleman, L.F. (1992) Profile of mood states. Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego.