ACS  Vol.4 No.2 , April 2014
Measurement of Air Pollution in Kuwait City Using Passive Samplers

Measurements of gaseous SO2, NO, NO2, H2S, O3, NH3 and VOCs, in Kuwait city using IVL passive sampler technology, were obtained on monthly basis during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 at 10 locations. The results of this study reveal that those compounds had low concentrations compared to Kuwait Environment Public Authority standards for residential areas. It is found that nitrogen oxides, benzene and xylene were mostly emitted from motor vehicles; in contrast, industrial sources including oil industries were a major contributor to sulfur dioxide and toluene pollution. Higher concentrations of NOx and SOwere recorded during winter season where the inversion layer is quite pronounced thus trapping more pollutants in ambient air, while higher O3 values were recorded in summer period; the hot season in Kuwait. The spatial distributions of the measured gaseous air pollutants were extremely consistent with the influence of the prevailing wind direction NW. In general and except for PM10, the yearly average air quality indices (AQI) of SO2, NO2, CO and Oconcentrations are coming under the category of “good” and “moderate”.

Cite this paper
Al-Awadhi, J. (2014) Measurement of Air Pollution in Kuwait City Using Passive Samplers. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 253-271. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.42028.
[1]   Al-Mutairi, N. and Koushki, P. (2009) Potential Contribution of Traffic to Air Pollution in the State of Kuwait. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5, 218-222. 2009.218.222

[2]   Al-Awadhi, F.A. and Al-Awadhi, S.A. (2006) Bayesian Statistical Modeling for Different Pollutants in the State of Kuwait. Environmetrics, 17, 739-752.

[3]   World Bank (2003) World Development Indicators. World Bank Publications, Washington DC.

[4]   Matsumoto, K. and Tanaka, H. (1996) Formation and Dissociation of Atmospheric Particulate Nitrate and Chloride: An Approach Based on Phase Equilibrium. Atmospheric Environment, 30, 639-648.

[5]   Ettouney, R.S., Abdul-Wahab, S.A. and Elkilani, A.S. (2009) Emissions Inventory, ISCST, and Neural Network Modelling of Air Pollution in Kuwait. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 66, 193-206.

[6]   Al-Salem, S.M. and Khan, A.R. (2008) Comparative Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Two Urban Areas Adjacent to Petroleum Downstream/Upstream Facilities in Kuwait. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 25, 683-696.

[7]   Ferm, M. and Rodhe, H. (1997) Measurements of Air Concentrations of SO2, NO2 and NH3 at Rural and Remote Sites in Asia. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 27, 17-29. A:1005816621522

[8]   Ayers, G.P., Keywood, M.D., Gillet, R.W., Manins, P.C., Malfroy, H. and Bardsley, T. (1998) Validation of Passive Diffusion Samplers for SO2 and NO2. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 3593-3609.

[9]   Ayers, G.P., Peng, L.C., Gillet, R.W. and Fook, L. (2002) Rainwater Composition and Acidity at Five Sites in Malaysia in 1996. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 133, 15-30. A:1012967614759

[10]   Gillett, R.W., Ayers, G.P., Mhwe, T., Selleck, P.W. and Harjan, H. (2000) Concentrations of Nitrogen and Sulfur Species in Gas and Rainwater from Several Sites in Indonesia. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 120, 205-2015.

[11]   Al-Shayji, K., Lababidi, H.M., Al-Rushoud, D. and Al-Adwani, H. (2008) Development of a Fuzzy Air Quality Performance Indicator. Kuwait Journal of Science and Engineering, 35, 101-126.

[12]   US Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Guideline for Reporting of Daily Air Quality—Air Quality Index (AQI). Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park.

[13]   Costabilea, F., Bertonia, B., Desantisa, F., Wanga, F., Weiminb, H., Fengleib, L. and Allegrinia, I. (2006) A Preliminary Assessment of Major Air Pollutants in the City of Suzhou, China. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 6380-6395.