ACS  Vol.4 No.2 , April 2014
Inter Seasonality of the Energy Fluxes in Brazilian Savana—Mato Grosso—Brazil
ABSTRACT

Dynamics of flows of matter and energy these biomes are relevant to understanding of environmental processes that govern the biosphere-atmosphere interactions and between ecosystems. This study analyzed inter season and season of energy fluxes in Brazilian Savana through Bowen Ration Method. Results show differences in patterns LE in all season, LE predominant in wet while H in dry. This inversion in patterns of predominant components of the energy balance in wet and dry season because in wet season increase water content in soil and atmosphere due precipitation in this season providing more lost energy for atmosphere in shape LE through soil evaporation and plant transpiration, this results in LE and H in all season of the Brazilian Savana show higher variation in dynamics energy fluxes between surface and atmosphere, as well as energy partition in this biome. Statistics analyses presents than many climate variables influences LE and H in each season indicating complexity in this fluxes. More study is necessary to higher understand patterns energies fluxes in Brazilian Savana.


Cite this paper
Curado, L. , Nogueira, J. , Sanches, L. , Rodrigues, T. , Lobo, F. and Bíudes, M. (2014) Inter Seasonality of the Energy Fluxes in Brazilian Savana—Mato Grosso—Brazil. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 219-230. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.42025.
References
[1]   Scholz, F.G., Bucci, S.J., Goldstein, G., Moreira, M.Z., Meinzer, F.C., Domec, J.-C., Villalobos Vega, R., Franco, A.C. and Miralles-Wilhelm, F. (2008) Biophysical and Life History Determinants of Hydraulic Lift in Neotropical Savanna Trees. Functional Ecology, 22, 773-786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2008.01452.x

[2]   Lenters, J.D., Cutrell, G.J., Istanbulluoglu, E., Scott, D.T., Herrman, K.S., Irmak, A. and Eisenhauer, D.E. (2011)Seasonal Energy and Water Balance of a Phragmites Australis-Dominated Wetland in the Republican River Basin of South-Central Nebraska (USA). Journal of Hydrology, 408, 19-34.
://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.07.010

[3]   Valiantzas, J.D. (2006) Simplified Versions for the Penman Evaporation Equation Using Routine Weather Data. Journal of Hydrology, 331, 690-702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.06.012

[4]   Zhou, L. and Zhou, G.S. (2009) Measurement and Modelling of Evapotranspiration over a Reed (Phragmites australis) Marsh in Northeast China. Journal of Hydrology, 372, 41-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.03.033

[5]   Chen, S., Chen, J., Lin, G., Zhang, W., Miao, H., Wei, L., Huang, J. and Han, X. (2009) Energy Balance and Partition in Inner Mongolia Steppe Ecosystems with Different Land Use Types. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 1800-1809.

[6]   Giambelluca, T.W., Scholz, F.G., Bucci, S.J., Meinzer, F.C., Goldstein, G., Hoffmann, W.A., Franco, A.C. and Buchert, M.P. (2009) Evapotranspiration and Energy Balance of Brazilians Savannas with Contrasting Tree Density. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 1365-1376.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.03.033

[7]   Malhi, Y., Pegoraro, E., Nobre, A.D., Pereira, M.G.P., Grace, J., Culf, A.D. and Clement, R. (2002) The Energy and Water Dynamics of a Central Amazonian Rain Forest. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, LBA 45-1-LBA45-17.

[8]   Falge, E., Reth, S., Brüggemann, N., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Goldberg, V., Oltchev, A., Schaaf, S., Spindler, G., Stiller, B., Queck, R., K?stner, B. and Bernhofer, C. (2005) Comparison of Surface Energy Exchange Models with Eddy Flux Data in Forest and Grassland Ecosystems of Germany. Ecological Modelling, 188, 174-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.01.057

[9]   Von Randow, C., Manzi, A.O., Kruijt, B., De Oliveira, P.J., Zanchi, F.B., Silva, R.L., Hodnett, M.G., Gash, J.H.C., Elbers, J.A., Waterloo, M.J., Cardoso, F.L. and Kabat, P. (2004) Comparative Measurements and Seasonal Variations in Energy and Carbon Exchange over Forest and Pasture in South West Amazonia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 78, 5-26.

[10]   Noormets, A., Ewers, B., Sun, G., Mackay, S., Zheng, D., McNulty, S.G. and Chen, J. (2006) Water and Carbon Cycles in Heterogeneous Landscapes: An Ecosystem Perspective. In: Chen, J., Saunders, S.C., Brosofske, K.D. and Crow, T.R., Eds., Linking Ecology to Landscape Hierarchies, Nova Publishing, Carbondale, 89-123.

[11]   Bala, G., Caldeira, K., Wickett, M., Phillips, T.J., Lobell, D.B., Delire, C. and Mirin, A. (2007) Combined Climate and Carbon-Cycle Effects of Large-Scale Deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academic Sciences United States America, 104, 6550-6555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0608998104

[12]   Juang, J.-Y., Katul, G.G., Siqueira, M.B.S., Stoy, P.C. and Novick, K.A. (2007) Separating the Effects of Albedo from Eco-Physiological Changes on Surface Temperature along a Successional Chronosequence in the Southeastern US. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, Article ID: L21408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031296

[13]   Vourlitis, G.L., Nogueira, J.D.S., Lobo, F.D.A., Sendall, K.M., de Paulo, S.R., Dias, C.A.A., Pinto, O.B.P. and de Andrade, N.L.R. (2008) Energy Balance and Canopy Conductance of a Tropical Semi-Deciduous Forest of the Southern Amazon Basin. Water Resources Research, 44, Article ID: W03412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031296

[14]   Amiro, B. (2009) Measuring Boreal Forest Evapotranspiration Using the Energy Balance Residual. Journal of Hidrology, 366, 112-118.

[15]   Dallacort, R., Ricieri, R.P., Silva, S.L., Freitas, P.S.L. and Silva, F.F. (2004) Análise do comportamento de um actinógrafo bimetálico (R. Fuess-Berlin-Steglitz) em diferentes tipos de cobertura do céu. Acta Scientiarum Agronomy, 26, 413-419.

[16]   Willmott, C.J. and Matsuura, E.K. (2005) Advantages of the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) over the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) in Assessing Average Model Performance. Climate Research, 30, 79-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/cr030079

[17]   Sokal, R.R., Rohlf, F.J. (1998) Biometry: The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. W. H. Freeman, New York, 887 p.

[18]   Schedlbauer, J.L., Oberbauer, S.F., Starr, G. and Jimenez, K.L. (2011) Controls on Sensible Heat and Latent Energy Fluxes from a Short-Hydroperiod Florida Everglades Marsh. Journal of Hydrology, 411, 331-341.

[19]   Sun, G., Noormets, A., Gavazzi, M.J., McNulty, S.G., Chen, J., Domec, J.C., King, J.S., Amatya, D.M. and Skaggs, R.W. (2010) Energy and Water Balance of Two Contrasting Loblolly Pine Plantations on the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 1299-1310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.016

 
 
Top