This paper presents an
analysis of the characteristics of the photovoltaic supercapacitor system that
moving fixedly along the longitude. A lot of equations concerning the
characteristics are considered including supercapacitor, direct motor, solar
radiation from the sun to the photovoltaic module through the atmosphere.
Runge-Kutta method is used to predict the time integrations, and Newton-Raphson
method ensures the simultaneous solutions at each substeps. The machine flying
takes one day trip or one year trip from different latitudes and different
seasons. Around solar noon, the photovoltaic generator drives the direct
current motor and charges the electrochemical supercapacitor simultaneously. An
electrochemical supercapacitor battery is used as a secondary battery. The
working ranges of electrochemical supercapacitor battery and direct current
motor are found by the simultaneous solution of their characteristics. The
thermostat system induces the excess currents and supplies heat energy to keep
the photovoltaic module supercapacitor not below the ice point. This study
shows the considerable benefits of the supercapacitor used for energy storage,
and also finds a performance in which the presented photovoltaic supercapacitor
system can continue working for about three and one half years on the trips
from the equator and from the latitude of 30? and about four and
one half years on the trip from the latitude of 60?.
Cite this paper
Lee, S. and Herlambang, Y. (2014) Application of Electrochemical Supercapacitor to Photovoltaic System on Unmanned Flying Machine. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy
, 77-87. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2014.54008
 Townsend, T.U. (1989) A Method for Estimating the Long-Term Performance of Direct-Coupled Photovoltaic Systems. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison.
 Hottel, H.C. (1976) A Simple Model for Estimating the Transmittance of Direct Solar Radiation Through Clear Atmospheres. Solar Energy, 18, 129-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(76)90045-1
 Liu, B.Y.H. and Jordan, R.C. (1960) The Interrelationship and Characteristic Distribution of Direct, Diffuse and Total Solar Radiation. Solar Energy, 4, 1-19.
 King, D.L., Boyson, W.E. and Kratochvil, J.E. (2004) Photovoltaic Array Performance Model. Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND, 2004-3535.
 Hay, J.E. and Davies, J.A. (1980) Calculation of the Solar Radiation Incident on an Inclined Surface. Proceedings of the 1st Canadian Solar Radiation Data Workshop, Toronto, Canada.
 Klucher, T.M. (1979) Evaluation of Models to Predict Insolation on Tilted Surfaces. Solar Energy, 23, 111-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(79)90110-5
 Reindl, D.T., Beckman, W.A. and Duffie, J.A. (1990) Evaluation of Hourly Tilted Surface Radiation Models. Solar Energy, 45, 9-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(90)90061-G
 Duffie, J.A. and Beckman, W.A. (2010) Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.
 Pang, S.C., Anderson, M.A. and Chapman, T.W. (2000) Novel Electrode Materials for Thin-Film Ultracapacitors: Comparison of Electrochemical Properties of Sol-Gel-Derived and Electrodeposited Manganese Dioxide. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 147, 444-450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.1393216
 Frackowiak, E. and Beguin, F. (2001) Carbon Materials for the Electrochemical Storage of Energy in Capacitors. Carbon, 39, 937-950. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(00)00183-4
 Lufrano, F. and Staiti, P. (2010) Mesoporous Carbon Materials as Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 5, 903-916.
 Lee, S.C. (2011) Characteristic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System Flying at Fixed Latitude. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 3337-3346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2011.07.002
 Spencer, J.W. (1971) Fourier Series Representation of the Position of the Sun. Search, 2, 162-172.
 Brandemuehl, M.J. and Beckman, W.A. (1980) Transmission of Diffuse Radiation through CPC and Flat-Plate Collector Glazings. Solar Energy, 24, 511-513.
 Fanney, A.H., Dougherty, B.P. and Davis, M.W. (2002) Evaluating Building Integrated Photovoltaic Performance Models. Proceedings of 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), New Orleans, 19-24 May 2002, 16421645.
 Kasten, F. and Young, A.T. (1989) Revised Optical Air Mass Tables and Approximation Formula. Applied Optics, 28, 4735-4738.