OJGen  Vol.4 No.2 , April 2014
Expression of Heterosis and Heritability in Vegetative Traits of Gongronema latifolia
ABSTRACT

The existence of hybrid vigour with high heritability in vegetative traits of Gongronema latifolia will increase its productivity. This study was therefore undertaken to estimate heterosis and heritability in the vegetative traits of G. latifolia. Stem cuttings of five heterozygous parents of different geographical origin, and seeds of 10 hybrids resulting from their crosses were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a field. Data on the vegetative traits were obtained at the maximum growth period in each year of study and was used to estimate heterosis and heritability over the years. Better parent heterosis (BPH) ranged from -72% to 78% over three years. All the vegetative traits—with the exception of cordate base size—showed positive heterosis in a minimum of four cross combinations in two years. The cross AKS-33-EKPENE EDIENE X ANS-53-AWKA gave a higher BPH ranging from 5% to 6% in leaf area in the three years. The crosses ENS-48-MBU X IMS-50-NJIABA and ENS-48-MBU X ANS-53-AWKA gave higher BPH for leaf length and breadth for the first two years. All crosses showed positive and negative BPH for number of vines/plant and cordate base size, respectively. The hybrids ENS-48-MBU X IMS-50-NJIABA and EBS-49-ISHIAGU X IMS-50-NJIABA, with highly heritable BPH > 60 cm2 leaf area, will be selected in favour of other hybrids and parents. The selection of these hybrids will improve and maintain productivity in the species as the leaves are the harvestable part and the species is vegetatively propagated.


Cite this paper
Agbo, C. and Silva, J. (2014) Expression of Heterosis and Heritability in Vegetative Traits of Gongronema latifolia. Open Journal of Genetics, 4, 146-156. doi: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.42015.
References
[1]   Agbo, C.U. and Obi, I.U. (2008) Germination Potentials of Gongronema latifolia Benth. Seeds at Different Stages of Maturity and Storage. Seed Science and Technology, 36, 114-121.

[2]   Agbo, C.U. and Obi, I.U. (2009) Patterns of Vegetative Propagation of Stem Cuttings of Three Physiological Ages of G. latifolia Benth. over Two Seasons in Nsukka. Agro-Science, 8, 290-293.

[3]   Okafor, J.C. (1997) Conservation and Use of Traditional Vegetable from Woody Forest Species in Southeastern Nigeria. In Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops. Proceedings of the IPGRI International Workshop on Genetic Resources of Traditional Vegetables in Africa. Conservation and Use, Nairobi, 29-31 August 1995.

[4]   Agbo, C.U., Umeh, P.C. and Obi, I.U. (2009) Genetic Variability in Protein and Amino Acid Composition of Some Clones of G. latifolia Leaves. Food, 3, 98-106.

[5]   Agbo, C.U., Teixeira da Silva, J.A. and Aleke, F.I. (2011) Selection of Gongronema latifolia Hybrids Exhibiting Heterosis for Certain Vitamins and Lycopene. Journal of Crop Improvement, 25, 742-755,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15427528.2011.606522

[6]   Ugochukwu, N.H. and Babady, N.E. (2002) Antioxidant Effects of Gongronema latifolia in Hepatocytes of Rat Models of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Fitoterapia, 73, 612-628.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(02)00218-6

[7]   Morbise, O., Fatus, M.A., Makinde, J.M., Olajide, O.A. and Awe, E.O. (2002) Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Leaves of G. latifolia. Phytother Resource, 16, 75-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.784

[8]   Agbo, C.U., Baiyeri, K.P. and Obi, I.U. (2005) Indigenous Knowledge and Utilization of G. latifolia Benth: A Case Study of Women in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Bio-Research Journal, 3, 66-69.

[9]   Hakim, K., Hidayat-ur-Rahman, H., Ahmed, H., Ali, I. and Alam, M. (2008) Magnitude of Heterosis and Heritability in Sunflower over Environments. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40, 301-308.

[10]   Duvick, D.N. (2001) Biotechnology in the 1930s: The Development of Hybrid Maize. Nature Reviews Genetics, 2, 69-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35047587

[11]   Burton, J.W. and Brownie, C. (2006) Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression in Two Soybean Single Crosses. Crop Science, 46, 2643-2648. http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2006.03.0156

[12]   Agbo, C.U. and Odo, G.C. (2008) Hybrid Vigour in Some Phytochemical and Mineral Compositions of Fresh and Air-Dried Leaves of G. latifolia Benth. Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 62, 1-6.

[13]   GENSTAT (2007) Genstat Discovery Edition 3.0. Lawes Agricultural Trust Rothamsted Experimental Station, Herefordshire.

[14]   Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984) Statistical Procedure for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Publishers, New York, 680p.

[15]   Uguru, M.I. (2005) Crop Genetics and Breeding. Comic Printers, Onitsha, 30.

[16]   Anonymous (2001) Potato Breeding, Engineering Plant Roots. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.

[17]   Perez, P.T., Cianzio, S.R. and Palmer, R.G. (2009) Evaluation of Soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merr.) Hybrids. Journal of Crop Improvement, 23, 1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15427520802417832

[18]   Agbo, C.U. and Obi, I.U. (2005) Analysis of the Relationships between Gongronema latifolia Leaf Traits and Its Leaf Area Using Path Coefficients. Proceedings of Genetics Society of Nigeria (GSN) Conference, 5-8 September 2005, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

[19]   McWilliams, D.A., Berglund, D.R. and Endres, G.J. (2004) Soybean Growth and Management. North Dakota State University Extension Service, A1174, 8.

[20]   Emmam, Y., Shekoofa, A., Salehi, F. and Jalali, A.H. (2010) Water Stress Effect on Two Common Bean Cultivars with Contrasting Growth Habits. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 9, 495-499.

[21]   Vuglsteke, D., Ortiz, R., Ferris, R.S.B. and Crouch, J.H. (1997) Plantain Improvement. Plant Breeding Revolution, 14, 267-320.

[22]   Jayalakshimi, V., Narendra, B., Sridhar, V. and Devi, K.R. (2000) Heterosis in Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Agriculture Science Digest, 20, 114-115.

[23]   Stuber, C.W., Lincoln, S.E., Wolf, D.W., Helentjaris, T. and Lander, E.S. (1992) Identification of Genetic Factors Contributing to Heterosis in a Hybrid from Two Elite Maize Inbred Lines Using Molecular Markers. Genetics, 132, 823-839.

[24]   Semel, Y., Nissenbaum, J., Menda, N., Zinder, M. and Krieger, U. (2006) Overdominant Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Fitness in Tomato. Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 12981-12986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0604635103

[25]   Garcia, A.A., Wang, S., Melchinger, A.E. and Zeng, Z.B. (2008) Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping and the Genetic Basis of Heterosis in Maize and Rice. Genetics, 180, 1707-1724.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.107.082867

[26]   Frascaroli, E., Cane, M.A., Landi, P., Pea, G. and Gianfranceschi, L. (2007) Classical Genetic and Quantitative Trait Loci Analyses of Heterosis in a Maize Hybrid between Two Elite Inbred Lines. Genetics, 176, 625-644.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.106.064493

[27]   Li, L., Lu, K., Chen, Z., Mu, T., Hu, Z. and Li, X. (2008) Dominance, Overdominance and Epistasis Condition of Heterosis in Two Heterotic Rice Hybrids. Genetics, 180, 1725-1742.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.108.091942

[28]   Flint-Garcia, S.A., Bucklen, E.S., Tiffin, P., Ersoz, E. and Springer, N.M. (2009) Heterosis Is Prevalent for Multiple Traits in Diverse Maize Germplasm. PIOS ONE, 4, e74313.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007433

 
 
Top