Although much effort has
been made to characterize and understand extreme rainfall’s causes and effects,
little is known about their frequency and intensity. Moreover, knowledge about
their contribution to the total rainfall climatology is still minimal,
especially over the Amazon where rainfall data are very scarce. In this paper
we propose to classify extreme rainfall events by type and analyze their
frequency and intensity over South America with a focus on the Amazon basin.
Gridded daily data from the MERGE/CPTEC product over a period of 15 years
(1998–2013) was used. An adaptation of Rx5d climate index was applied to select different kinds
of extreme rainfall for the purpose of quantifying their frequency and
intensity as well as their contribution to the accumulated rainfall
climatology. According to the results, all kinds of extreme rainfall events can
be observed over the studied area. However, the quantity of rainfall produced
by each type is different, and consequently their percent contributions to the
total accumulated rainfall climatology also differ. For example: in the Amazon
region EET-I is responsible for 15% - 40%
of the total accumulated rainfall. Moreover, in the Brazilian northeast there
are regions where EET-I exceeds 40% of the total rainfall. In northeast Brazil
EET-II is responsible up to 30% of the total accumulated rainfall. EET-III is
responsible for 5% - 15% in the
Amazon basin, 25% - 45% in
northeast Brazil and 10% - 45%
over Roraima State. Area-mean time variation shows that the quantity of
rainfall extremes over the Amazon basin was reduced during the El Nino years of
2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010, while during the La Ni?a episodes of 1999, 2008 and
2011 the quantity of rainfall related to the extremes increased.
Cite this paper
Brito, A. , Veiga, J. and Yoshida, M. (2014) Extreme Rainfall Events over the Amazon Basin Produce Significant Quantities of Rain Relative to the Rainfall Climatology. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences
, 179-191. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.42021
 Marengo, J.A. (2009) Impactos de extremos relacionados com o tempo e o clima—Impactos sociais e economicos. Boletim do Grupo de Pesquisa em Mudancas Climáticas, n. 08, 1-5.
 Marengo, J.A., Nobre, C.A. and Tomasella, J. (2008) The Drought of Amazon in 2005. Journal of Climate, 21, 495-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1600.1
 Marengo, J.A., Javier, T., Alves, M.A., et al. (2011) The Drought of 2010 in the Context of Historical Droughts in the Amazon Region. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, Article ID: L12703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1600.1
 Marengo, J.A., Tomasella, J. and Soares, W.R. (2012) Extreme Climate Events in the Amazon Basin. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 107, 73-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-011-0465-1
 Espinoza, J.C., Ronchail, J., Frappart, F., et al. (2012) The Major Floods in the Amazonas River and Tributaries (Western Amazon Basin) during the 1970-2012 Period: A Focus on the 2012 Flood. Journal of Hydrology, 14, 1000-1008.
 Satyamurty, P., da Costa, C.P., Manzi, A.O., et al. (2013) A Quick Look at the 2012 Record Flood in the Amazon Basin. Geography Research Letter, 40, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/grl.50245
 Satyamurty, P., De Castro, A.A., Tota, J., et al. (2010) Rainfall Trends in the Brazilian Amazon Basin in the Past Eight Decades. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 99, 139-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-009-0133-x
 Marengo, J.A., Alves, L., Valverde, M., Laborbe, R. and Rocha, R. (2007) Eventos extremos em cenários regionalizados de clima no Brasil e América do Sul para o Século XXI: projecoes de clima futuro usando três modelos regionais. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Secretaria de Biodiversidade e Florestas, Diretoria de Conservacao da Biodiversidade, Relatório 5, 8-62.
 Hegerl, G.C., Zwiers, F.W., Stott, P.A. and Kharin, V.V. (2004) Detectability of Anthropogenic Changes in Annual Temperature and Precipitation Extremes. Journal of Climate, 17, 3683-3700.
 Valverde, M. and Marengo, J.R. (2011) Rainfall Extremes Events Climatology over the Amazon Basin. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Global Warming, Lisbon, 11-14 July 2011, 1-8.
 Marengo, J.A., Nobre, C.A., Chou, S.C., Tomasella, J., Sampaio, G., Alves, L.M., Obregón, G.O., Soares, W.R., Betts, R. and Kay, G. (2011) Riscos das Mudancas Climáticas no Brasil. Análise Conjunta Brasil-Reino Unido Sobre os Impactos das Mudancas Climáticas e do Desmatamento na Amazonia, 2-56.
 Carvalho, L.M.V., Jones, C. and Liebmann, B. (2003) The South Atlantic Convergence Zone: Persistence, Intensity, Form, Extreme Precipitation and Relationships with Intraseasonal Activity. Journal of Climate, 17, 88-108.
 Rozante, J.R., Moreira, D.S., Gon?alves, L.G., et al. (2010) Combining TRMM and Surface Observations of Precipitation: Technique and Validation over South America. Weather and Forecasting, 25, 885-894.