OJVM  Vol.4 No.4 , April 2014
High Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Are a Threat to Dairy Cattle Production in Kiboga District (Uganda)
Abstract: Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is one of the major factors affecting the productivity of dairy cattle all over the world. This study established the burden of SCM and determined the potent antibacterial formulation for control of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) related SCM in selected dairy cattle farms in Kiboga district. A total of 124 dairy cattle from 12 farms were screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT) from Kiboga Town-Council, Kapeke and Lwamata sub-counties. The offending bacteria were cultured and the antibiogram of SA was carried out using antibacterial susceptibility by the modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Additional qualitative data on the factors that predispose cows to SCM was obtained through questionnaires and observation of milking Practice. The prevalence of SCM in the three sub-counties was 87.9%. Over 70% of the dairy cattle screened for SCM had more than 2 udder quarters affected. The majority (90%) of SCM was caused by mixed bacterial infections: Coagulase negative staphylococci (64.4%) and SA (16.6%) being the most prevalent. All the farmers (100%) lacked knowledge on SCM, udder towels, teat dipping and drug cow therapy. Overall, 71.4% of SA isolated was multi-drug resistant. There was a high level of resistance against penicillin (100%), neomycin (85.7%) and tetracycline (71.4%). In contrast, all the above isolates were susceptible to Trimethoprim-Sulphamethazole. In conclusion, the high burden of SCM and emergence of multidrug resistant SA are one of the constraints to dairy production in Kiboga district. Therefore, sensitization of dairy farmers in Kiboga district on proper hygienic, appropriate milking techniques and dry cow therapy using potentiated sulfonamide intra-mammary preparations are highly recommended in SA associated SCM.
Cite this paper: Kasozi, K. , Tingiira, J. and Vudriko, P. (2014) High Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Are a Threat to Dairy Cattle Production in Kiboga District (Uganda). Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 4, 35-43. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.44005.

[1]   Anri, A. (2012) Manual for Mastitis Control in Developing Countries. Japan Livestock Technology Association. 37-56.

[2]   Byarugaba, D.K., Kisame, R. and Olet, S. (2011) Multi-Drug Resistance in Commensal Bacteria of Food of Animal Origin in Uganda. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5, 1539-1548.

[3]   Vaarst, M., Byarugaba, D.K., Nakavuma, J. and Laker, C. (2007) Participatory Livestock Farmer Training for Improvement of Animal Health in Rural and Peri-Urban Smallholder Dairy Herds in Jinja, Uganda. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 39, 1-11.

[4]   Pyorala, S. (1995) Staphylococcal and Streptococcal Mastitis. In: Sandholm, M., Honkanen-Buzalski, T., Kaartinen, L., Pyorala, S., Eds., The Bovine Udder and Mastitis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, 143-148.

[5]   Abrahmsén, M. (2012) Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Farms in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas of Kampala, Uganda. Second Cycle. SLU, Department of Clinical Sciences, Uppsala.

[6]   Byarugaba, D.K., Nakavuma, J.L., Vaarst, M. and Laker, C. (2008) Mastitis Occurrence and Constraints to Mastitis Control in Smallholder Dairy Farming Systems in Uganda. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 20, 1.

[7]   Nakavuma, J., Byarugaba, D.K., Musisi, L.N. and Kitimbo, F.X. (1994) Microbiological Diagnosis and Drug Resistance Patterns of Infectious Causes of Mastitis. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2, 22-28.

[8]   Kintu, A., Byarugaba-Karuhize, D. and Nalwanga, D.K. (2000) Mastitis in Peri-Urban Zero-Grazing Dairy Farming around Kampala. Uganda Veterinary Journal, 6, 45-50.

[9]   Martinez, G.R. (1988) An Appraisal of Mastitis and the Potential for Its Control in Dairy Herds on the Savannah of Bogota. PhD Thesis, University of Reading, Reading.

[10]   Mellenberger, R. and Roth, C.J. (2000) California Mastitis Test (CMT), Fact Sheet. Department of Animal Sciences, Michigan State University and Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

[11]   Monica, C. (2006) District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 2. 2nd Edition, 62-70, 132-143, 157-234.

[12]   Quinn, P.J., Carter, M.E., Markey, B. and Carter, G.R. (1994) Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Wolfe Publishing, London.

[13]   EUCAST (2012) Disk Diffusion Method for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Version 2.1.

[14]   Hand, K.J., Godkin, A. and Kelton, D.F. (2012) Milk Production and Somatic Cell Counts: A Cow-Level Analysis. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 1358-1362.

[15]   Jemeljanovs, A., Cerina, S. and Konosonoka, I.H. (2010) Economic Losses Resulting from Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows.

[16]   Byarugaba, D.K. (2004) A View on Antimicrobial Resistance in Developing Countries and Responsible Risk Factors. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 24, 105-110.

[17]   Nihar, N.M., Priyaranjan, D., Shaswati, S.P., Laxmi, N.S., Siddharth, R. and Hemant, K.P. (2013) Isolation and Antibiogram of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli Isolates from Clinical and Subclinical Cases of Bovine Mastitis. Veterinary World, EISSN: 2231-0916.