AASoci  Vol.4 No.4 , April 2014
The Prediction of High School Girls’ Happiness Based on Their Educational Major and Their Mothers’ Gender Stereotypes
Abstract: Happiness related to an individual’s happy perception, life satisfaction, and ability creates a balance between positive and negative feelings and leads to better functioning in life. Psychologists believe that the family plays a role in the explanation of happiness. In this regard, researchers have paid attention to the mother’s stereotypical beliefs and their effect on the mother’s behavior and her parenting style. The purpose of this research was to predict girls’ happiness based on their educational fields and their mothers’ gender serotypes. The statistical population included those student girls who were educated in high-school science and mathematics in Tehran in 2012. Random-cluster method was applied to select the samples. 243 participants completed a questionnaire on happiness and gender beliefs. Data were analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression. The results showed that mothers’ gender stereotype can predict happiness in girls. Also the educational field can predict girl’s happiness. The results of this research can be used by parents, educational psychologists and school counselors.
Cite this paper: Abolmaali, K. , Ghafari, T. and Ajilchi, B. (2014) The Prediction of High School Girls’ Happiness Based on Their Educational Major and Their Mothers’ Gender Stereotypes. Advances in Applied Sociology, 4, 121-127. doi: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.44015.

[1]   Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

[2]   Alipour, A., Ezheiee, J., & Motieeian, H. (2000). Happiness Functions and Immunity. Journal of Psychology, 4, 219-233.

[3]   Amani, R., & Hadian-Hamedani, R. (2008). Study of Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Increasing the Degree of Students’ Happiness. Collection of 4th Conference of Students’ Mental Health, 35-38.

[4]   Argyle, M., Martin, M., & Crossland, J. (1989). Happiness as a Function of Personality and Social Encounters. In J. P. Forgas, & J. M. Innes (Eds.), Recent Advances in Social Psychology: An International Perspective (pp. 189-203). Amsterdam: North Holland, Elsevier Science.

[5]   Argyle, M., Martin, M., & Lu, L. (1995). Testing for Stress and Happiness: The Role of Social and Cognitive Factors. In C. D. Spielberger, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and Emotion (pp. 173-187). Washington DC: Taylor & Francis.

[6]   Berman, J.Z., & Small, D.A. (2012). The Hedonic Benefit of Imposed Self Interest. Psychological Science, 23, 1193-1199.

[7]   Belsky, J. (1980). Child Maltreatment: An Ecological Integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320-335.

[8]   Carr, A. (2004). Positive Psychology: The Science of Happiness and Human Strength. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

[9]   Dehkordi, A. A., Mohtashami, M., & Hassanzadeh, T. (2012). Study of Psychological Scale of Gender Role of Bem Short Form That Emphasizing on the Factorial Analysis in Iranian Population. Journal of Social Recognition, 1, 44-58.

[10]   Furnham, A., & Cheng, H. (2000). Perceived Parental Behavior, Self-Esteem and Happiness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatry Epidemiology, 35, 463-470.

[11]   Huebner, E. S., Gillman, R., & Furlong, M. J. (2009). A Conceptual Model for Research in Positive Psychology in Children and Youth. In R. Gillman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology in Schools (pp. 3-9). New York: Routledge.

[12]   Ifegbesan, A. (2010). Gender-Stereotypes Belief and Practices in the Classroom: The Nigerian Post-Primary School Teachers. Global Journal of Human Social Science, 10, 29-39.

[13]   Keshavarz, A., & Vafaieeian, M. (2007). Study of Effective Factors on Happiness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2, 51-62.

[14]   Khosravi, S., Ghomrani, A., & Bardideh, M. (2010). Study of Effective Factors on Students’ Happiness, Journal of Educational Psychology, 21, 8-14.

[15]   Korai Nouri, R., Mocrie, A., Mohammadifar, M., & Yazdani, E. (2012). The Study of Happiness &Well Being: The Role of Different Factors for Them among Students of Tehran University. Journal of Education Psychology, 32, 3-41.

[16]   Lu, L. (1999). Personal or Environmental Causes of Happiness: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 79-90.

[17]   Martin, C. L., & Halverson, C. F. (1981). Schematic Processing Model of Sex-Typing and Stereotyping in Children. Child Development, 52, 1119-1134.

[18]   Munawar, M. (2004). Gender Analysis of School Curriculum and Textbooks. Pakistan: UNESCO.

[19]   Noddings, N. (2003) Happiness and Education. New York: Cambridge University Press.

[20]   Powell, G. N., Butterfield, D. A., & Parent, J. D. (2002). Gender and Managerial Stereotypes: Have the Times Changed? Journal of Management, 28, 177-193.

[21]   Riahi, M. E. (2007). Social Factors Effective on the Acceptance of Gender Stereotypes. Journal of Women in Development and Politics, 1, 50-83.

[22]   Safari, S. (2010). Study of Happiness Degree and Its Relationship with Demographical Variables among Students. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 2, 79-87.

[23]   Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). The Positive Perspective on Youth Development. In D. L. Evans, E. B. Goa, R. E. Gur, H. Hendin, C. O’Brien, M. E. Seligman, & T. Walsh (Eds.), Treating and Preventing Adolescent Mental Health Disorders: What We Know and What We Don’t Know (pp. 498-527). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[24]   Schalock, R., & Alonso, M. A. V. (2002). Handbook on Quality of Life for Human Service Practitioners. Washington DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.

[25]   Schwarz, N., & Strack, F. (1991). Evaluating One’s Life: A Judgment Model of Subjective Wellbeing. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Subjective Well-Being: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Oxford: Pergamom Press.

[26]   Watt, H., & Bornholt, L. (1994). Gendered Perception of Talent and Planned Participation in Mathematics. Australian Journal of Career Development, 3, 43-50.

[27]   Witt, S. (2000). The Influence of School and Reading Materials on Children’s. Gender Role Socialization: An Overview of Literature. Early Child Development and Care, 162, 1-7.

[28]   Zibaieenezhad, M. (2009). Identity and Gender Roles. Tehran: Office of Women’s Study.

[29]   Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J., Eds. (2004). Building Academic Success on Social and Emotional Learning: What Does the Research Say? New York: Teachers College Press.

[30]   Zohrehvand, R. (2006). Study of Psychological and Educational Status of Girl Students. Research Projects, Tehran: Institute of Education Studies.