Back
 AJPS  Vol.5 No.9 , April 2014
Genetic Diversity of the Palestinian Fig (Ficus carica L.) Collection by Pomological Traits and RAPD Markers
Abstract: Analysis of differentiation (genetic diversity and related relationships) among 22 landrace (Ficus carica L. sativa) and 2 wild form (F. carica L. caprificus) accessions of fig growing under the same environmental conditions in the Palestinian Fig Collection, Til, Nablus, Palestine, using PCR-based Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pomological markers, revealed considerable genetic diversity. The phenotypic analysis shows that pomological traits were permitted to evaluate morphological variability of fig landraces. The Jaccard similarity coefficient between landraces was determined by cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Based on the genetic relationships among genotypes as illustrated by the dendrograms, generated from pomological and RAPD data by UPGMA clustering method, the following 12 genotypes: Qaisi, Mwazi, Barqawi, Inaqi, Swadi, Kharobi, Hmadibiadi, Sfari, Khdari, Biadi, Qrawi, and Slati, may be considered as distinct landraces. The remaining genotypes may be considered as synonymous (4) (Hmadi and Hmari, and Ajloni and Adloni), or closely related (6) landraces (Zraqi and Ghzali, Blati and Neami, and Qraee and Khurtmani). The wild fig forms clustered together and may be considered as distinct genotypes. Clustering patterns obtained from the combined (pomological and RAPD) markers had higher discriminatory power to discriminate fig landraces than using either pomological or RAPD markers alone. These results proved the importance of both pomological and RAPD markers to elucidate in part denomination problems and relationships among cultivars. Wide phenotypic and molecular diversity found in fig germplasm indicates a considerable potential for improving this crop.
Cite this paper: Ali-Shtayeh, M. , Jamous, R. , Abu Zaitoun, S. , Mallah, O. and Mubaslat, A. (2014) Genetic Diversity of the Palestinian Fig (Ficus carica L.) Collection by Pomological Traits and RAPD Markers. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 1139-1155. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.59127.
References

[1]   Flaishman, M., Rodov, V. and Stover, E. (2008) The Fig: Botany, Horticulture, and Breeding. Horticultural Reviews, 34, 113-197.

[2]   Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2009) The FAO Statistical Database-Agriculture.
http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/download/Q/QC/E

[3]   Shtayeh, M.S., Jabi, F.F. and Hamad, A. Kh. (1991) The Fig Tree. Rural Research Centre, An-Najah National University, Nablus.

[4]   Aljane, F. and Ferchichi, A. (2009) Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Some Southern Tunisian Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars Based on Morphological Descriptors. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1-16.

[5]   Baraket, G., Chatti, K., Saddoud, O., Ben-Abdelkarim, A., Mars, M., Trifi, M. and Hannachi, A. (2011) Comparative Assessment of SSR and AFLP Markers for Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Conservation of Fig, Ficus carica L., Genetic Resources in Tunisia. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 29, 171-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11105-010-0217-x

[6]   Khadari, B., Hochu, I., Santoni, S., Oukabli, A., Ater, M., Roger, J.P. and Kjellberg, F. (2003) Which Molecular Markers Are Best Suited to Identify Fig Cultivars: A Comparison of RAPD, ISSR and Microsatellite Markers. Acta Horticulturae, 605, 69-75.

[7]   Sadder, M.T. and Atteyyeh, A.F. (2006) Molecular Assessment of Polymorphism among Local Jordanian Genotypes of The Common Fig (Ficus carica L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 107, 347-351.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2005.11.006

[8]   Agarwal, M., Shrivastava, N. and Padth, H. (2008) Advances in Molecular Markers Techniques and Their Applications in Plant Sciences. Plant Cell Reports, 27, 617-631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-008-0507-z

[9]   Gaaliche, B., Saddoud, O. and Mars, M. (2012) Morphological and Pomological Diversity of Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars in Northwest of Tunisia. ISRN Agronomy, 2012, 1-9.

[10]   Almajali, D., Abdel-Ghani, A.H. and Migdadi, H. (2012) Evaluation of Genetic Diversity among Jordanian Fig Germplasm Accessions by Morphological Traits and ISSR Markers. Scientia Horticulturae, 147, 8-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.08.029

[11]   Basheer-salimia, R., Awad, M., Salama, A., Alseek, S., Harb, J. and Hamdan, Y. (2012) Molecular Polymorphisms in Palestinian Figs (Ficus carica L.) as Revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 10, 169-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgeb.2012.07.001

[12]   Khadari, B., Lashermes, P.H. and Kjellberg, F. (1995) RAPD Fingerprints for Identification and Genetic Characterization of Fig (Ficus carica L.) Genotypes. Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 49, 77-86.

[13]   Elisiario, P.J., Neto, M.C., Cabrita, L.F. and Leitao, J.M. (1998) Isoenzyme and RAPDs Characterization of a Collecion on Fig (Ficus carica L.) Traditional Varieties. Acta Horticulturae, 480, 149-154.

[14]   Galderisi, U., Cipollaro, M., Di Bernardo, G., De Masi, L., Galano, G. and Cascino, A. (1999) Identification of the Edible Fig “Bianco del Cilento” by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis. HortScience, 3, 1263-1265.

[15]   Cabrita, L.F., Aksoy, U., Hepaksoy, S. and Leitao, J.M. (2001) Suitability of Isozyme, RAPD and AFLP Markers to Assess Genetic Differences and Relatedness among Fig (Ficus carica L.) Clones. Scientia Horticulturae, 87, 261-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(00)00181-3

[16]   Papadopoulou, K., Ehaliotis, C., Tourna, M., Kastanis, P., Karydis, I. and Zervakis, G. (2002) Genetic Relatedness among Dioecious Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis, and Evaluation of Agronomic and Morphological Characters. Genetica, 114, 183-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015126319534

[17]   Aka-Kacar, Y., Kuden, A.B. and Cetiner, S. (2003) Identification of Varietal Polymorphism in Ficus carica L. by RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) Markers. Acta Horticulturae, 598, 167-172.

[18]   De Masi, L., Cipollaro, M., Di Bernardo, G., Galderisi, U., Galano, G., Pavone, E., Grassi, G., Simeone, A. and Cascino, A. (2003) Clonal Selection and Molecular Characterization by RAPD Analysis of the Fig (Ficus carica L) “Dottato”and “Bianco del Cilento” Cultivars in Italy. Acta Horticulturae, 605, 65-68.

[19]   Achtak, H., Oukabli, A., Ater, M., Santoni, S., Kjellberg, F. and Khadari, B. (2009) Microsatellite Markers as Reliable Tools for Fig Cultivar Identification. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science, 134, 624-631.

[20]   Kocsis, M., Jaromi, L., Putnoky, P., Kozma, P. and Borhidi, A. (2005) Genetic Diversity among Twelve Grape Cultivars Indigenous to the Carpathian Basin Revealed by RAPD Markers. Vitis, 44, 87-91.

[21]   Salhi-Hannachi, A., Chatti, K., Saddoud, O., Mars, M., Rhouma, A., Marrakchi, M. and Trifi, M. (2006) Genetic Diversity of Different Tunisian Fig (Ficus carica L.) Collection Revealed by RAPD Fingerprints. Hereditas, 143, 15-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2005.0018-0661.01904.x

[22]   Lin, R.C., Ding, Z.S., Li, L.B. and Kuang, T.Y. (2001) A Rapid and Efficient DNA Minipreparation Suitable for Screening Transgenic Plants. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 19, 379a-379e. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02772839

[23]   Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 3, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

[24]   Schlüter, P.M. and Harris, S.A. (2006) Analysis of Multilocus Fingerprinting Data Sets Containing Missing Data. Molecular Ecology Notes, 6, 569-572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2006.01225.x

[25]   Roldan-Ruiz, I., Dendauw, J., Van Bockstaele, E., Depicker, A. and De Loose, M. (2000) AFLP Markers Reveal High Polymorphic Rates in Ryegrasses (Lolium spp.). Molecular Breeding, 6, 125-134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009680614564

[26]   Gilbert, J.E., Lewis, R.V. and Wilkinson, M.J. (1999) Developing an Appropriate Strategy to Assess Genetic Variability in Plant Germplasm Collections. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 98, 1125-1131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001220051176

[27]   IPGRI and CIHEAM (2003) Descriptors for Fig (Ficus carica L.). International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRRI), Rome, Italy and International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM), Paris.

[28]   Aljane, F., Ferchichi, A. and Boukhris, M. (2008) Pomological Characteristics of Local Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars in Southern Tunisia. Acta Horticulturae, 798, 123-128.

[29]   Mantel, N. (1967) The Detection of Disease Clustering and Generalized Regression Approach. Cancer Research, 27, 209-220.

[30]   Akbulut, M., Ercisli, S. and Karlidag, H. (2009) RAPD-Based Study of Genetic Variation and Relationships among Wild Fig Genotypes in Turkey. Genetics and Molecular Research, 8, 1109-1115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4238/vol8-3gmr634

[31]   De Masi, L., Domenico Castaldo, G.G., Paola, M. and Bruna, L. (2005) Genotyping of Fig (Ficus carica L) Via RAPD Markers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 2235-2242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2247

[32]   Bandelj, D., Jakse, J. and Javornik, B. (2002) DNA Fingerprinting of Olive Varieties by Microsatellite Markers. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 40, 185-190.

[33]   Devanshi, K., Sharma, P., Singh, B., Singhand, R. and Singh, N.K. (2007) Molecular Profiling and Genetic Relationship among Ber (Ziziphus spp.) Genotypes Using RAPD Markers. Indian Journal of Genetics, 67, 121-127.

 
 
Top