OJMSi  Vol.2 No.2 , April 2014
Modifying Plant Oils for Use as Fuel in Rural Contexts Tanzania: Techno-Economic Analysis
ABSTRACT
Techno-economic analysis of a small-scale Modified Plant Oil (MPO) production plant that has an annual production capacity of 15,072,741 kg of MPO (batch process) was carried out to estimate the capital and operating costs of a plant. The analysis was done by using a computer model that was designed and simulated with an aid of SuperPro Designer (Version 4.32) software. The specified feedstock was crude Jatropha oil (JO) and the main product was MPO. The major processes involved were degumming, neutralisation and blending. Degumming involved the removal of gums or phospholipids, and two methods were used: water degumming and acid degumming, whereas blending involved mixing of degummed or purified JO with natural gas condensate (NGC) modifier to lower the viscosity of JO. From techno-economic analysis of the process, it was found that the total capital investment of a plant was about US $ 10,222,000 and the predicted unit production cost of MPO was US $ 1.315/kg at a value of US $ 1.0/kg of JO. The economic feasibility of MPO production was found to be highly influenced by the price of feedstock, which contributed about 95% of the total annual production cost. The relationship between plant throughput and unit cost of producing MPO showed that unit production cost was very sensitive to production rate at low annual throughputs. The MPO cost showed a direct linear relationship with the cost of JO, with a change of US $ 0.50/kg of MPO in MPO cost in every change of US $ 0.50/kg of JO in JO price. The process technology simulated was found to be economically viable and can be implemented in rural setting, taking into consideration Tanzania’s rural situation.

Cite this paper
Mlay, H. , Katima, J. and Minja, R. (2014) Modifying Plant Oils for Use as Fuel in Rural Contexts Tanzania: Techno-Economic Analysis. Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation, 2, 43-56.
doi: 10.4236/ojmsi.2014.22007.
References
[1]   UN Report (2007) Small-Scale Production and Use of Liquid Biofuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: Perspective for
Sustainable Development.http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/csd15/documents/csd15_bp2.pdf

[2]   Kimambo, C.Z.M. (2006) Solar Energy: Utilisation Status and Constraints in
Tanzania. Energy Resources in Tanzania, 1, 2-37.

[3]   Nzali, A.H. and Mushi, S.J.S. (2006) Wind Energy Application in Tanzania. Energy Resources in Tanzania, 1,
38-72.

[4]   Lujaji, F., Bereczky, A., Novak, Cs. and Mbarawa, M. (2010) Cetane Number and Thermal Properties of
Croton Oil, Biodiesel, 1-Butanol and Diesel Blends. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering
2010 Volume III WCE 2010, London, 30 June-2 July 2010.

[5]   Murugesan, A., Umarani, C., Chinnusamy, T.R., Krishnan, M., Subramanian, R. and Neduzchezhain, N.
(2009) Production and Analysis of Biodiesel from Non-Edible Oils: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, 13, 825-834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2008.02.003

[6]   Balat, M. and Balat, H. (2008) A Critical Review of Biodiesel as a Vehicular Fuel. Energy Conversion
and Management, 49, 2727-2741. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.03.016

[7]   Fürstenwerth, D., Tragsdorf, M. and Zieroth, G. (2008) Potentials of Coconut Oil as Diesel Substitute
in Pacific Island Countries. www.sopac.org/tiki-download_file.php?fileId=1184

[8]   Sanga, G.A. and Meena, S.B. (2008) Biofuel Powered Energy Service Platforms for Rural Energy Services:
Design, Installation, Operation, Maintenance and Management. PENplus Ltd., Dar es Salaam.

[9]   Shahid, E.M. and Jamal, Y. (2008) A Review of Biodiesel as Vehicular Fuel. Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, 12, 2484-2494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2007.06.001

[10]   Mittelbach, M. and Remschmidt, C. (2004) Biodiesel: The Comprehensive Handbook. Boersedruck
Ges.m.b.H, Vienna.

[11]   de Almeida, S.C.A., Belchior, C.R., Nascimento, M.V.G., Vieira, L.D.S.R. and Fleury, G. (2002) Performance
of a Diesel Generator Fuelled with Palm Oil. Fuel, 81, 2097-2102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(02)00155-2

[12]   Altin, R., Cetinkaya, S. and Yücesu, H.S. (2001) The Potential of Using Vegetable Oil Fuels as Fuel
for Diesel Engines. Energy Conversion and Management, 42, 529-538.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(00)00080-7

[13]   Srivastava, A. and Prasad, R. (2000) Triglycerides-Based Diesel Fuels. Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, 4, 111-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-0321(99)00013-1

[14]   Ma, F. and Hanna, M.A. (1999) Biodiesel Production: A Review. Bioresource Technology, 70, 1-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00025-5

[15]   Nwafor, O.M.I. and Rice, G. (1996) Performance of Rapeseed Oil Blends in a Diesel Engine.
Applied Energy, 54, 345-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-2619(96)00004-9

[16]   kleinová, A., Vailing, I., Lábaj, J., Mikulec, J. and Cvengro?, J. (2011) Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats
as Alternative Fuels for Diesel Engines with Dual Fuel Operation. Fuel Processing Technology, 92, 1980-1986.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.05.018

[17]   Basinger, M., Reding, T., Williams, C., Lackner, K.S. and Modi, V. (2010) Compression Ignition Engine
Modifications for Straight Plant Oil Fuelling in Remote Contexts: Modification Design and Short-Run
Testing. Fuel, 89, 2925-2938. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.04.028

[18]   Sinnott, R.K. (1993) Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering (Design). Chemical Engineering
Technical Series. 2nd Edition, Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, Seoul, Tokyo.

[19]   Peters, M.S. and Timmerhaus, K.D. (1981) Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. Chemical
Engineering Series. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, Tokyo.

[20]   Vlysidis, A., Binns, M., Webb, C. and Theodoropoulos, C. (2011) Integrated Biodiesel Plants:
Options and Perspectives. http://www.nt.ntnu.no/users/skoge/prost/proceedings/pres2011-an-ic…

[21]   Demirbas, A. (2009) Political, Economic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: A Review.
Applied Energy, 86, S108-S117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.04.036

[22]   Demirbas, A. (2008) Biofuels Sources, Biofuel Policy, Biofuel Economy and Global Biofuel
Projections. Energy Conversion and Management, 49, 2106-2116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.02.020

[23]   Haas, M.J., Mcaloon, A.J., Yee, W.C. and Foglia, T.A. (2006) A Process Model to Estimate Biodiesel
Production Costs. Bioresource Technology, 97, 671-678. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.03.039

[24]   Zhang, Y., Dubé, M.A., Mclean, D.D. and Kates, M. (2003) Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil:
2. Economic Assessment and Sensitivity Analysis. Bioresource Technology, 90, 229-240.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00150-0

[25]   Knothe, G., Dunn, O.R. and Bagby, O.M. (1997) Biodiesel: The Use of Vegetable Oils and their
Derivatives as Alternative Diesel Fuels. Agriculture Research Service.
www.journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/VegetableOilsKnothe.pdf

[26]   Shanklin, T., Marten, M.R., Roper K. and Yegneswaran, P.K. (2001) Evaluation of Process Simulation
Software for Biotechnology Application.
http://www.pharmaceuticalonline.com/doc/Evaluation-of-Process-Simulation-Software-for-0001

[27]   Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (2011) Utilisation of the Songosongo Natural Gas
Condensate. TPDC and UDSM-PISCES Meeting, BWM Towers TPDC Offices, Dar es Salaam, 18 May 2011.
Unpublished.

[28]   Rajabu, Y.R., Manyele, S.V. and Mrema, G.D. (2009) Utilisation of the Songosongo Gas Condensate.
Final Year Project, Chemical and Mining Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.

[29]   Intelligen, Inc. (2013) http://www.intelligen.com

[30]   Yee, W.C., Mcaloon, A.J. and Tomasula, P.M. (2013) Manual for the Fluid Milk
Process Model and Simulator. http://www.idfa.org/files/resources/dairy-process-manual-ver3-pmt-may-2013a.pdf

[31]   Saska, M. (2009) Modelling Boiling House Operations with SuperPro Designer: Effects of Final Molasses
Recycle and Double Magma Boiling.
http://sugaryazucar.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Modelling_boiling_house_operations_with_Super
Pro_Designer.110110305.pdf


[32]   Bowen, E., Kennedy, S.C. and Miranda, K. (2010) Ethanol from Sugar Beets: A Process and Economic
Analysis.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/77393730/Ethanol-From-Sugar-Beets-A-Process-and-Economic-Analysis

[33]   Akbar, E., Yaakob, Z., Kamarudin, S.K., Ismail, M. and Salimon, J. (2009) Characteristic and Composition
of Jatropha curcas Oil Seed from Malaysia and Its Potential as Biodiesel Feedstock. European Journal
of Scientific Research, 29, 396-403.

[34]   Diligent Tanzania (2010) Material Safety Data Sheet, Diligent Jatropha Seed Oil. http://www.diligent-tanzania.com

[35]   Dijkstra, A.J. (2011) Edible Oil Processing-Refining—Introduction to Degumming.
The AOCS Lipid Library. http://lipidlibrary.aocs.org/processing/degum-intro/index.htm

[36]   Deffense, E. (2009) From Organic Chemistry to Fat and Oil Chemistry. Oleagineux
Corps Gras Lipides, 16, 14-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/ocl.2009.0238

[37]   Zufarov, O., Schmidt, ?., Sekretár, S. and Cvengro?, J. (2009) Ethanolamines Used for Degumming of
Rapeseed and Sunflower Oils as Diesel Fuels. European Journal of Lipid Science and
Technology, 111, 985-992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200900025

[38]   Chemical Book (2008) 1,2-OLEIN-3-LINOLEIN Basic Information.
http://www.chemicalbook.com/ProdSupplierGWCB5111347_EN.htm

[39]   NIST (2013) National Institute of Standards and Technology Chemistry WebBook.
http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry

[40]   Wikipedia (2013) Net Present Value. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_present_value

 
 
Top