NR  Vol.5 No.4 , March 2014
A Multi-Level Evaluation of Policy Integration of Human Resource Development in Agriculture Sector
ABSTRACT

Human resource development assumes as a golden key for a knowledge-based economy and competitiveness. This study evaluates policy integration of human resource development (HRD) in agricultural sector within the context of multi-level governance (i.e., interdependence of administrative levels in decision making) and suggests means to enhance policy integration in Bangladesh. Conducting a critical review of major policy instruments, key informant interview and two case studies, this study concluded that HRD issue has fairly included and observed consistency (between the aim of HRD and policy) in all policies and strategies; majority of policy instruments have significantly addressed the significance of HRD and added plans for its development; reporting, monitoring and evaluation of policies and strategies are rather weak and there is no adequate flow of financial arrangement that is largely determined by the availability of government project. Based on the findings, the following means should be useful for improving HRD policy integration such as providing a handsome amount of development budget at the sub-district agricultural office, formulating coherent strategies to build effective cooperation, coordination and participation among stakeholders, initiating special capacity building programmes for rural women, young farmers and smallholders and mainstreaming HRD issue in governmental planning and programmes, and accordingly crafting policies and implementation.


Cite this paper
Roy, R. and Chan, N. (2014) A Multi-Level Evaluation of Policy Integration of Human Resource Development in Agriculture Sector. Natural Resources, 5, 119-129. doi: 10.4236/nr.2014.54013.
References
[1]   BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics) (2012) Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh. BBS Division, Ministry of Planning (MoP), Government of Bangladesh (GoB).

[2]   Ahmed, R.A. (2001) Prospects of the Rice Economy in Bangladesh. The University Press, Ltd., Dhaka.

[3]   Dorosh, P. (2006) Accelerating Income Growth in Rural Bangladesh. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

[4]   Hossain, M. (2009) The Impact of Shallow Tube Wells and Boro Rice on Food Security in Bangladesh. IFPRI Discussion Paper 00917, IFPRI.

[5]   CPD (Centre for Policy Dialogue) (2000) Bangladesh Agriculture at the Crossroads: Current Challenges. Report No. 36, Dhaka.

[6]   IAASTD (International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development) (2009) Global Report: Agriculture at a Crossroads. Island Press, Washington, DC.

[7]   Asaduzzaman, M., Ringler, C., Thurlow, J. and Alam, S. (2010) Investing in Crop Agriculture in Bangladesh for Higher Growth and Productivity, and Adaptation to Climate Change. Bangladesh Food Security Investment Forum, Dhaka.

[8]   World Bank (2005) Revitalizing the Agricultural Technology System in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development SeriesPaper No. 7. The World Bank Office, Dhaka.

[9]   Roy, R., Chan, N.W. and Rainis, R. (2014) Rice Farming Sustainability Assessment in Bangladesh. Sustainability Science, 9, 31-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11625-013-0234-4

[10]   Roy, R., Chan, N.W. and Rainis, R. (2013) Development of an Empirical Model of Sustainable Rice Farming: A Case Study from Three Rice-Growing Ecosystems in Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 13, 449-460.

[11]   Pretty, J., Noble, A.D., Bossio, D., Dixon, J., Hine, R.E., Penning, R.E., De Vries, F.W.T. and Morison, J.I.L. (2006) Resource Conserving Agriculture Increases Yields Developing Countries. Environment Science and Technology, 40, 1114-1119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es051670d

[12]   Gaunt, J.L., Best, S.K., Sutherland, J.R., Norrish, A.J. and Robinson, P. (2003) The Researcher-Farmer Interface in Rice Wheat Systems: Moving from Agricultural Productivity to Livelihoods. In: Improving the Productivity and Sustainability of Rice-Wheat Systems: Issues and Impacts. ASA Special Publ. 65, Am. Soc. Agron., Madison.

[13]   WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development) (1987) Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[14]   UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) (1992) Agenda 21. United Nations, New York.

[15]   Persson, A. (2005) Environmental Policy Integration: An Introduction. PINTS Background Paper. SEI, Stockholm.

[16]   Mickwitz, P. and Kivimaa, P. (2007) Evaluating Policy Integration: The Case of Policies for Environmentally Friendlier Technological Innovations. Evaluation, 13, 68-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1356389007073682

[17]   Jordan, A. and Lenschow, A. (2010) Environmental Policy Integration: A State of the Art Review. Environmental Policy and Governance, 20, 147-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eet.539

[18]   Lafferty, W.M. and Hovden, E. (2003) Environmental Policy Integration: Towards an Analytical Framework. Environmental Politics, 12, 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09644010412331308254

[19]   Bache, I. and Flinders, M. (2005) Themes and Issues in Multi-Level Governance. In: Bache, I. and Flinders, M., Eds., Multi-Level Governance, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1-11.

[20]   Kivimaa, P. and Mickwitz, P. (2006) The Challenge of Greening Technologies—Environmental Policy Integration in Finnish Technology Policies. Research Policy, 35, 729-744. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2006.03.006

[21]   Kivimaa, P. and Mickwitz, P. (2009) Making the Climate Count—Climate Policy Integration and Coherence in Finland. Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki.

[22]   Kothari, C.R. (2004) Research Methodology—Methods and Techniques. 2nd Edition, New Age, New Delhi.

[23]   WRPO (Water Resources Planning Organization) (2004) Coastal Development Strategy 2006. Ministry of Water Resources, GoB, 2006. International Publisher, New Delhi, 414.

[24]   DoE (Department of Ministry) (2008) National Sustainable Development Strategy Bangladesh. Ministry of Environment and Forests, GoB.

[25]   MoP (Ministry of Planning) (2011) Sixth Five-Year Plan FY2011-2015: Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty (Part-1 Strategic Directions and Policy Framework). Planning Commission, Government of Bangladesh (GoB).

[26]   DMB (Disaster Management Bureau) (2010) National Plan for Disaster Management 2010-2015. Government of Bangladesh (GoB).

[27]   MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forests) (2005) National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for Bangladesh 2005. GoB.

[28]   MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005) Ecosystems and Well-Being. Island Press, Washington, DC.

[29]   Fubusa, Y.J. (2010) Conservation from the Bottom-Up: Human, Financial, and Natural Capital as Determinants of Resilient Livelihoods in Kigoma Rural Tanzania. Ph.D. Thesis, Utah State University.

[30]   Roy, R., Chan, N.W. and Rainis, R. (2013) Development of Indicators for Sustainable Rice Farming in Bangladesh: A Case Study with Participative Multi-Stakeholder Involvement. World Applied Science Journal, 22, 672-682.

[31]   Roy, R. and Chan, N.W. (2012) An Assessment of Agricultural Sustainability Indicators in Bangladesh: Review and Synthesis. Environmentalist, 32, 99-110.

[32]   Momtaz, S. (2002) Environmental Impact Assessment in Bangladesh: A Critical Review. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 22, 163-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0195-9255(01)00106-8

[33]   MoF (Ministry of Finance) (2012) Bangladesh Economic Survey 2012. Economic Adviser’s Wing, Finance Division, Ministry of Finance, Government of Bangladesh (GoB).

[34]   Hazell, P.B.R. (2008) An Assessment of the Impact of Agricultural Research in South Asia since the Green Revolution. CGIAR Science Council Secretariat, Rome.

[35]   Asaduzzaman, M. (2009) Getting Agriculture Moving Once Again: Strategic Options for Post-HYV Agriculture in Bangladesh. UK Department for International Development, Dhaka.

[36]   Ziauddin, A.T.M. and Ahmmed, S. (2010) Agricultural Research: Vision 2030 and Beyond. In: A Final Report on Research Priorities in Farm Machinery, Irrigation & Water Management and Post-Harvest Technology. BARC, Dhaka.

[37]   MoA (Ministry of Agriculture) (2010) National Agricultural Policy 2010. GoB.

[38]   Roy, R., Chan, N.W., Uemura, T. and Imura, H. (2013) The Vision of Agri-Environmental Sustainability in Bangladesh: How the Policies, Strategies and Institutions Delivered? Journal of Environmental Protection, 4, 40-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2013.48A2006

 
 
Top