NR  Vol.5 No.3 , March 2014
Nephelometric Performance Evaluation of Oxidized Starch in the Treatment of Coal Washery Effluent
ABSTRACT

This study investigated the coag-flocculation performance of oxidized starch coagulant (OSC) and its blends with alum and FeCl3 in removing turbidity from coal washery effluent at room temperature. A conventional laboratory bench-scale jar test apparatus was employed for the experiments. Coag-flocculation parameters such as reaction order α, rate constant K, coagulation time τ, etc. were determined. The optimum pH was observed at 4.0, while the blend of 30.0 mg/L FeCl3 and 250.0 mg/L OSC achieved the optimum turbidity removal. Turbidity removal efficiency was recorded between 96.0% and 99.9% for various dosages and pH studied. The coagulation rate constants, K recorded range from 9.393 × 10-5 L/mg.min to 8.294 × 10-1 min-1, while coagulation periods τ, range from 3.8 s to 235.7 s for various dosages and pH studied. The use of OSC blended with FeCl3 showed high level of efficiency, for the treatment of coal washery effluent.


Cite this paper
Nnaji, P. , Okolo, B. and Menkiti, M. (2014) Nephelometric Performance Evaluation of Oxidized Starch in the Treatment of Coal Washery Effluent. Natural Resources, 5, 79-89. doi: 10.4236/nr.2014.53009.
References
[1]   Nnaji, P.C. (2012) An Investigation of the Performance of Various Coagulants/Flocculants in Removing the Turbidity of Coal Washery Effluents. M. Eng. Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Owerri.

[2]   Jin, Y. (2005) Use of High Resolution Photographic Technique for Studying Coagulation/Flocculation in Water Treatment. M.Sc Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, 22-29.

[3]   Ma, J.J, Li, G.B, Chen, G.R., Xu, G.O and Cai, G.Q. (2001) Enhanced Coagulation of Surface Waters with High Organic Content by Permanganate Peroxidation. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 1, 51-61.

[4]   Menkiti, M.C., Nnaji, P.C., Nwoye, O.D. and Onukwuli, O.D. (2010) Coa-Flocculation Kinetics and Functional Parameters Response of Mucuna Seed Coagulant to pH Variation in Organic Rich Coal Washery Effluent Medium. Journal of Mineral and Material Characterization and Engineering, 2, 89-103.

[5]   Menkiti, M.C., Nnaji, P.C. and Onukwuli, O.D. (2009) Coa-Flocculation Kinetics and Functional Parameters Response of Periwinkle Shell Coagulant (PSC) to pH Variation in Organic Rich Coal Washery Effluent Medium. Nature and Science, 7, 1-18.

[6]   Atkins, P.W. (1998) Physical Chemistry. 6th Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[7]   Srinivasan, R. (2013) Simple, Efficient and Eco-Friendly Solution for Water and Wastewater Treatment. Blackland Research Center, Texas Agrilife Research, Texas A&M University, Temple, Texas.

[8]   Xie, S.X., Liu, Q. and Cui, S.W. (2005) Starch Modification and Applications. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

[9]   AWWA, APHA and WEF (2012) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 22nd Edition, New York.

[10]   Burton, F., Tchobanoglous, G. and Stensel, H.D. (2003) Physical Unit Process, Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse. 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York.

[11]   Menkiti, M.C., Osoka, E.C. and Onukwuli, O.D. (2008) Perikinetics Coagulation/Flocculation of Coal Washery Effluent Colloid with high Suspended Particle: Using Periwinkle Shell Coagulant (PSC). Journal of the Nigeria Society of Chemical Engineers, 23, 38-52.

[12]   Von Smoluchowski, M. (1917) Versucheiner Mathematischen Theorie der Koagulation Kinetic Kolloide Lousungen Z. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 92, 129-168

[13]   Maiti, S.K., Karmakar, N.C. and Sharrna, P. (2004) Study on Settling Behavior of Coal Washery Effluent—A Case Study. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Environmental Engineering with Special Emphasis on Mining Environment, NSEEME-2004, Dhanbad, 19-20 March 2004, 187-192.

[14]   Van Zanten, J.H., and Elimelechi, M. (1992) Determination of Rate Constants by Multi Angle Light Scattering. Journal of Colloid and Interface, 154, 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(92)90072-T

[15]   Water Specialist Technology (WST) (2005) About Coagulation and Flocculation. Information Bulletins, USA.

[16]   Danov, D.K., Kralchevsky, P.A. and Ivanov, I.B. (2001) Dynamics Process in Surfactants Stabilized Emulsion. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, Sofia.

[17]   Ravina, L. (1973) Everything You Want to Know about Coagulation and Flocculation. 4th Edition, Zeta-Meter Inc., Staunton.

[18]   B. Bina, Mehdinejad, M.H., Nikaeen, M. and Movahedian Attar, H. (2009) Effectiveness of Chitosan as Natural Coagulant Aid in Treating Turbid Waters, Iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 6, 247-252

[19]   Ani, J.U., Nnaji, N.J.N., Onukwuli, O.D. and Okoye, C.O.B. (2012) Nephelometric and functional parameters response of coagulation for the purification of industrial wastewater using Detarium microcarpum. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 243, 59-66,

[20]   Fogler, H.S. (2012) Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering. 4th Edition, PHI Learning Private Ltd, New Delhi.

[21]   Menkiti, M.C. and Onukwuli, O.D. (2011) Single and Multi Angle Nephelometric Approach to the Study of CoagFlocculation of Coal Washery Effluent Medium using Brachystegia Eurycoma Coagulant (BEC). World Journal of Engineering, 8, 61-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1260/1708-5284.8.1.61

 
 
Top