Burgers, J., & Danelius, H. (1998). The United Nations Convention against Torture: A Handbook on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (pp. 10-12). Dordrecht: Nijhoff.
 Krause, C., & Scheinin, M. (2009). International Protection of Human Rights: A Textbook Institute for Human Rights, Abo Akadami University. Institute for Human Rights. www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ihrec/publications/abopub.cfm
 Manfred, N. (2009). Torture and Enforced Disappearance. In C. Krause, & M. Scheinin (Eds.), International Protection of Human Rights: A Textbook (pp. 151-182). Turku/Abo: Abo Akademi University, Institute for Human Rights.
 United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) (2009). Report of the Committee against Torture (p. 392). New York: UNGA. (GAOR Sixty-fourth Session, Supplement No. 44 (A/64/44)) (also available in other official languages of the UN system).