JCDSA  Vol.4 No.2 , March 2014
General Theory of Body Contouring: 2. Modulation of Mechanical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat Tissue
Abstract

Subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) can be described micromechanically as a foam structure. It is shown that according to this model, mechanical stiffness of this tissue is primarily dependent on the average cell size and is almost independent of the dispersion of cell sizes in a local adipocytes’ population. Whereas the influence of natural fat renewal process with a rate of 10% per year must be of minor importance for mechanical properties of sWAT, induced adipocytes’ death can substantially reduce local sWAT stiffness. The sWAT which contains two or more different subpopulations of adipocytes of varying sizes with a spatially clustered structure can demonstrate significant inhomogeneity of their mechanical properties when compared with those of sWAT consisting of a single population of adipocytes. It is proposed that this effect may be an important pathophysiological feature of cellulite. Transformation of the cell shape from quasispherical to wrinkled or elliptical forms makes adipocytes more susceptible to thermo-mechanical stress reducing the strain needed to achieve the local plastic deformation. These mechanical features of sWAT are essential for understanding the mechanisms of different non-invasive and minimal invasive body contouring procedures.


Cite this paper
Kruglikov, I. (2014) General Theory of Body Contouring: 2. Modulation of Mechanical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat Tissue. Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 4, 117-127. doi: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.42017.
References

[1]   Kruglikov, I.L. (2014) Processes of Quick and Slow Modulation of Subcutaneous Fat Tissue Volume in Body Contouring Procedures. Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 4, 107-116.

[2]   Tchoukalova, Y.D., Koutsari, C., Karpyak, M.V., Votruba, S.B., Wendland, E. and Jensen, M.D. (2008) Subcutaneous Adipocytes Size and Body Fat Distribution. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 56-63.

[3]   Spalding, K.L., Arner, E., Westermark, P.O., Bernard, S., Buchholz, B.A., Bergmann, O., Blomqvist, L., Hoffstedt, J., Naslund, E., Britton, T., Concha, H., Hassan, M., Ryden, M., Frisen, J. and Arner, P. (2008) Dynamics of Fat Cell Turnover in Humans. Nature, 453, 783-787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ nature06902

[4]   Arner, E., Westermark, P., Spalding, K.L., Britton, T., Ryden, M., Frisen, J., Bernard, S. and Arner, P. (2010) Adipocyte Turnover: Relevance to Human Adipose Tissue Morphology. Diabetes, 59, 105-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db09-0942

[5]   Monteiro, R., de Castro, P.M.S.T., Calhau, C. and Azevedo, I. (2006) Adipocyte Size and Liability to Cell Death. Obesity Surgery, 16, 804-806. http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/096089206777346600

[6]   Fournier, L. and Joos, B. (2003) A Lattice Model for the Kinetics of Rupture of Fluid Bilayer Membranes. Physical Review E, 67, Article ID: 051908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.67.05 1908

[7]   Comley, K. and Fleck, N.A. (2010) A Micromechanical Model for the Young’s Modulus of Adipose Tissue. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 47, 2982-2990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. ijsolstr.2010.07.001

[8]   Comley, K. and Fleck, N.A. (2010) The Toughness of Adipose Tissue: Measurements and Physical Basis. Journal of Biomechanics, 43, 1823-1826. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.02.029

[9]   Alkhouli, N., Mansfeld, J., Green, E., Bell, J., Knight, B., Liversedge, N., Tham, J. C., Welbourn, R., Shore, A.C., Kos, K. and Winlove, C.P. (2013) The Mechanical Properties of Human Adipose Tissue and Their Relatioships to the Structure and Composition of the Extracellular Matrix. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 305, E1427-E1435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo. 00111.2013

[10]   Chun, T.-H., Hotary, K.B., Sabeh, F., Saltiel, A.R., Allen, E.D. and Weiss, S.J. (2006) A Pericellular Collagenase Directs the 3-Dimensional Development of White Adipose Tissue. Cell, 125, 577-591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.050

[11]   Khan, T., Muise, E.S., Iyengar, P., Wang, Z.V., Chandalia, M., Abate, N., Zhang, B.B., Bonaldo, P., Chua, S. and Scherer, P.E. (2009) Metabolic Dysregulation and Adipose Tissue Fibrosis: Role of Collagen VI. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 29, 1575-1591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01300-08

[12]   Divoux, A., Tordjman, J., Lacasa, D., Veyrie, N., Hugol, D., Aissat, A., Basdevant, A., Guerre-Millo, M., Poitou, C., Zucker, J.-D., Bedossa, P. and Clement, K. (2010) Fibrosis in Human Adipose Tissue: Composition, Distribution, and Link with Lipid Metabolism and Fat Mass Loss. Diabetes, 59, 2817-2825. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db10-0585

[13]   Alexopoulos, L.G., Youn, I., Bonaldo, P. and Guilak, F. (2009) Developmental and Osteoarthritic Changes in Col6a1-Knockout Mice: Biomechanics of Type VI Collagen in the Cartilage Pericellular Matrix. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 60, 771-779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.24293

[14]   Gibson, L.J. and Ashby, M.F. (1997) Cellular Solids: Structure and Properties. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[15]   Cinti, S., Mitchell, G., Barbatelli, G., Murano, I., Ceresi, E., Faloia, E., Wang, S., Fortier, M., Greenberg, A.S. and Obin, M.S. (2005) Adipocytedeath Defines Macrophage Localization and Function in Adipose Tissue of Obese Mice and Humans. Journal of Lipid Research, 46, 2347-2355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M500294-JLR200

[16]   Strissel, K.J., Stancheva, Z., Miyoshi, H., Perfeld II, J.W., DeFuria, J., Jick, Z., Greenberg, A.S. and Obin, M.S. (2007) Adipocyte Death, Adipose Tissue Remodeling, and Obesity Complications. Diabetes, 56, 2910-2918. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db07-0767

[17]   Kang, L., Lantier, L., Kennedy, A.J., Bonner, J.S., Mayes, W.H., Bracy, D.P., Bookbinder, L.H., Hasty, A.H., Thompson, C.B. and Wasserman, D.H. (2013) Hyaluronan Accumulates with High Fat Feeding and Contributes to Insulin Resistance. Diabetes, 62, 1888-1896. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db12-1502

[18]   Kruglikov, I.L. (2013) Is the Depletion of Hyaluronan in Hypertrophic Fat Tissue a Key Event in Body-Contouring Procedures? The American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery, 30, 244-245.

[19]   Rosenwald, M., Perdikari, A., Rülicke, T. and Wolfrum, C. (2013) Bi-Directional Interconversion of Brite and White Adipocytes. Nature Cell Biology, 15, 659-667. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb2740

[20]   Wang, Q.A., Tao, C., Gupta, R.K. and Scherer, P.E. (2013) Tracking Adipogenesis during White Adipose Tissue Development, Expansion and Regeneration. Nature Cell Biology, 19, 1338-1344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3324

[21]   Harms, M. and Seale, P. (2013) Brown and Beige Fat: Development, Function and Therapeutic Potential. Nature Medicine, 19, 1252-1263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3361

[22]   Bart-Smith, H., Bastawros, A.-F., Mumm, D.R., Evans, A.G., Sypeck, D.J. and Wadley, H.N.G. (1998) Compressive Deformation and Yielding Mechanisms in Cellular Al Alloys Determined Using X-Ray Tomography and Surface Strain Mapping. Acta Materialia, 46, 3583-3592.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6454(98)00025-1

[23]   Geerligs, M., Peters, G.W.M., Ackermans, P.A.J., Oomens, C.W.J. and Baaijens, F.P.T. (2010) Does Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Behave as an (Anti-)thixotropic Material?” Journal of Biomechanics, 43, 1153-1159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.11.037

[24]   Mangipudi, K.R., van Buuren, S.W. and Onck, P.R. (2010) The Microstructural Origin of Strain Hardening in Two-Dimensional Open-Cell Metal Foams. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 47, 2081-2096. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2010.04.009

[25]   Kruglikov, I.L. (2012) The Pathophysiology of Cellulite: Can the Puzzle Eventually Be Solved? Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 2, 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jcdsa. 2012.21001

 
 
Top